‘Ear’idescent Nightingales

‘Ear’idescent Nightingales July 23, 2022 Update

To see Nightingales currently available for sale please search on Ebay;

Nightingale Autoharp

(Contact me directly for newer versions for sale not listed on Ebay)

DickBozung@SevenArrowsMusic.net or (804) 725-0355

To see and listen to Nightingales in action please watch

the following two postings from YouTube:

or  search on YouTube;

Nightingale Autoharp

 

Postings on YouTube for the 24 in. body 12 nylon string soprano version and the 26 in. body 14 steel string baritone version using Sitka Spruce soundboards and guitar tuners should be up by the end of 2022. Come back and check them out. 

For a more detailed written explanation of ‘Ear’idescent Nightingales, please refer to what follows. Unfortunately, the formatting of my original “Open Office” documentation and this WordPress program do not jive, so there will be many, many places herein where I have not taken the time to make all of the necessary changes (see pg. 4 for example, among many others, making things very confusing – especially tables).

This, if nothing else, will give you an idea of how much documentation there is available to help you pursue any and all options that might interest you.

Please do not be overwhelmed by all the alternatives I am presenting. It will probably all boil down to just 1 or 2 versions of each of the 3 Models. My preferences are still the 24 in. body Model X’s (12 string steel alto and nylon soprano versions), the 26 in. body Model A’s (14 string and 16 string versions), and the 28 in. body Model B’s (16 and 20 string versions). All can be made with either guitar tuners or zither pins (only option on the 20 string). I’ll be devoting some time in the near future to posting complete reformated guidance on these versions here, as well as simplified USER’s Guides for each.

In the meantime, if you would like a much clearer representation of all the drawings, specs, building steps, guides, etc. please email me at dickbozung@SevenArrowsMusic.net and I’ll send you by email the latest on everything. It will make a huge difference versus trying to make sense of some of what follows because of the formatting issues and the fact that I am covering many, many (too many?) options.

(This may really be as much about establishing a musical instrument making community to help save the NATURAL WORLD, and an invitation for all to join in song to give praise to NATURE.)

pg. 0

AUTHORS PREFACE

Please see my note at the end of pg. 27 on “SHARING” and helping to RE-WILD the EARTH”. Thanks.

Before delving into all the ‘Ear’idescent Nightingale playing and design details which follows, I would like to begin by passing on some of my personal experiences with playing Nightingales in their evolving forms over the last 40 or so years of their development. I’d like to summarize these into eight basic categories.

1. PLAYING DIATONICALLY TUNED INSTRUMENTS

Error free improvisation and stretching into adjunct keys with partial 7th chords. Great for all playing levels. Re-tune 1 or 2 strings, flip over the chord guide, and instantly you are playing in the adjunct key.

2. PLAYING an INSTRUMENT with the SOUND BODY in DIRECT CONTACT with ONE’S EAR and CHEST

Comfortably hugging an instrument with one’s ear in direct contact with the sound-body – an ESOTERIC experience.

3. SIMPLIFIED CHORDING and MELODY PLAY with the EYES CLOSED

Common sense chord bar sequencing pattern and comfortable ergonomic chording means – no cross handed strumming

4. PLAYING a HARP versus a FRETTED INSTRUMENT

Multiple sustaining notes. Once again, an ESOTERIC experience.

5. An INSTRUMENT with a MOVEABLE BRIDGE

Key versatility and instant A-440 pitch control without having to re-tune all the strings individually.

6. An AUTOHARP LIKE INSTRUMENT (structurally much different than the traditional autoharp) with:

(a) A LIGHT WEIGHT and STRUCTURALLY SOUND BODY FRAMEWORK;

(b) A DEEP BODY with VERY THIN SOUNDBOARD and BACK; RESULTING in a RESONATE GUITAR LIKE SOUND;

(c) SIMPLIFIED TUNING MEANS UTILIZING REGULAR GUITAR TUNING MACHINES, and;

(d) INCORPORATING MANY FEWER and REGULAR GUITAR STRINGS (not expensive, specialized autoharp strings)

7. A VERY SIMPLE to MAKE MUSICAL INSTRUMENT

8. SEVERAL COMPLIMENTARY VERSIONS of DIFFERING SIZES and TUNING RANGES

(a) The SMALLER MODEL X (24 in. body), with FEWER STRINGS (12), EASY TO HANDLE and HIGHER PITCHED. MY PREFERENCES: the STEEL ALTO (C/F-tuning range c3-g4 @ 0) and the NYLON SOPRANO (G/C-tuning range g3-d5 @ #1)

(b) The MEDIUM SIZED MODEL A (26 in. body), MY PREFERENCE is with 14 STRINGS, LOWER PITCHED (C/F – g2, c3 – a4 @ #1), with a LARGER RESONATING CHAMBER AMPLIFYING that LOW g leading note.

(c) The FULL SIZED MODEL B (28 in. body), MY PREFERENCE with 16 STRINGS, with an EVEN LOWER and WIDER CONTINUOUS TUNING RANGE (C/F – f2 – g4), and with a REALLY FULL LOUD SOUND. (Could go with AG-16 instead)

THESE 3 VERSIONS, WHEN PLAYED TOGETHER, COMBINE to SOUND LIKE the COMBINATION of a MANDOLIN, 6 and 12 STRING GUITARS, and with a HARP THROWN in for GOOD MEASURE, ESPECIALLY when the BRIDGE is MOVED UP on the 12 NYLON STRING MODEL X SOPRANO VERSION to BRIDGE POSITION #6 (tuning range c3-g5)

PS. The SMALL, LIGHTWEIGHT, SIMPLE to MAKE and EASY to PLAY 12 STRING MODEL XP made with AUTOHARP TUNING PINS is INEXPENSIVE to MAKE and PERFECT for CHILDREN. And for a SIMPLER FULL SOUNDING ADULT VERSION using ZITHER PINS as well, try the MODEL AP (g2-a4) with 16 STRINGS.

I would like to take this opportunity to apologize for the errors, inconsistencies, omissions, etc. occurring in some of the pages which follow. I have thought hard and long about the many alternative ways of creating Nightingales (too much probably). I am 79 at the time of the GAL Journal article, and honestly, am growing a bit weary of the entire process. With making constant revisions, I have not been able to keep up with their proper documentation. I am about to make 2 more versions, a Model XGS-12 Soprano (nylon strings – G/C Set-up) and a Model AG-14 (C/F Set-up), both w/guitar tuners & needing to re-tune only 1 string at each bridge position for the adjunct key.

I will be uploading revised drawings of all models and updated design/building specifics over the next several months, with dates posted, all in the APENDIX (the following 43 numbered pages posting date is July 23, 2022).

pg. 1

EAR’IDESCENT NIGHTINGALES

(“SINGING OUT ON BEHALF OF THE EARTH”)

July 23, 2022 update via Richard Bozung

This document contains the latest design specifications, super-seeding some of the information published & archived by the Guild of American Luthiers – see luth.org, Journal edition #143 & the “web extras” section.

For a quick view of Nightingales being played, please search “Nightingale Autoharp” on YouTube (also see Ebay, same search, for earlier models for sale). The remaining information in the NIGHTINGALES section of Seven Arrows Musical Art (after the drawings) has been retained for historical reference purposes. Feel free to contact me by phone (804-725-0355) or email me at dickbozung@SevenArrowsMusic.net for emailed and/or postal versions of all updated documents and drawings and more recent versions for sale.

Go to the ‘DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS’ section below for updated designs, precise dimensions, etc. (Please note: The GAL drawings included in the Appendix should be used as general guides only.)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GENERAL INTRODUCTION pg. 2

B. PLAYING a NIGHTINGALE pg. 4

C. DETAILED DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

(1) MODEL X VERSIONS pg. 14

(2) MODEL A VERSIONS pg. 16

(3) MODEL B VERSIONS pg. 18

D. COMPARATIVE SUMMARIES ACROSS ALL MODELS

(1) DIMENSIONS pg. 20

(2) TUNINGS pg. 22

(3) STRING GAUGES pg. 23

(4) CHORDS pg. 23

E. LUTHIER NOTES pg. 25

F. ASSEMBLY SEQUENCING pg. 29

G. KEYS, TUNING and CHORD GUIDES for all versions pg. 32

H. APPENDIX pg. 44

*** LATEST DRAWINGS and SPECIFICATIONS POSTINGS ***

pg. 2

A. GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Excerpts from the AUTOHARP QUARTERLY MAGAZINE, Winter 2020 (Volume 32 Issue 1)

This has been a work in progress for over 40 years (1979 – 2020). There have been some interruptions along the way.(like hurricane Hugo’s 16 ft storm surge thru the old farmhouse I care-took on the South Carolina coastal marsh, north of Charleston – everything washed away). Then there were the interesting shop situations, in my Dad’s workshop in Santa Monica, Ca., on various front porches, in an old small cow milking barn, in bedrooms, etc. It has been an amazing ride and I am grateful to all the others who have assisted along the way. It is time for the GIVING and SHARING the Nightingales are finally ready to fledge, imperfect, as with all things natural. I certainly have no intention of replacing the autoharp – just complimenting it!

I began with an autoharp back in the early 70’s on a commune near Ojai, Ca. I have always loved its inherent simplicity and beautiful sound. In the 80’s I evolved into a music therapist of sorts, working with some blind and hearing impaired persons. Proceeding and during this process I became very immersed in hugging an autoharp close to my chest and in contact with my ear and playing it blind. So over time I experimented with designing autoharp like instruments with minor variations (more comfortable to hold against my ear, fewer and easier to tune strings, etc.) that met the following primary criteria.

1. A longer instrument that can be comfortably held against one’s chest and ear while sitting fully upright or standing, supported in the lap or by a strap (at least 12 versions on three body sizes varying in overall length from 25 to 35 in.). We have all probably experienced the magic of feeling an instrument’s vibration against our chest and the sensory sensation when our ear is in direct contact with the instrument itself (the derivation of the new term ‘Ear’idescent).

2. An instrument with fewer strings to tune and guitar tuners for easy tuning and utilizing readily available guitar strings (12 to 20 strings ranging from a 59 wound to a 10 plain (steel strings, the small version with optional nylon strings as well); almost 3 octave range from f2 to g5 across all the versions. Nightingales can also be fitted with traditional autoharp tuning pins if preferred.

3. A Guitaro like chording arrangement which I find well suited to comfortably accessing the chord tabs (at the ends of the bars and in just 2 rows) so that one can easily memorize and access the correct chord bar blind (chord mechanism higher on the instrument – strumming below). I personally have a strong preference for playing with my eyes closed, especially when improvising. Most of the major and dominant 7th chords are in one row (in a re-curing I-IV-V sequence) and the minors, suspended and major 7th chords are in the other row (all major chords are next to their relative minors).

4. An instrument playable in multiple keys at a time (with a minimum of all major and relative minor chords in the playable keys) and easily re-tunable to play in multiple diatonic keys without any re-stringing. In a diatonic tuning, with the addition of partial 7th and “open 5th” power chords, the instruments range is extended to play in several other “pseudo-keys”.

5. An instrument with an easily moveable bridge so that if not at A-440, with just a slight adjustment of the moveable bridge, the tuning is instantly brought to A-440 without having to re-tune all of the strings. The moveable bridge also facilitates play in all keys (much like using a capo on a fretted instrument).

6. An instrument with a powerful highly resonant guitar-like sound facilitated by a totally different structural design – deep body

(3 in), thin soundboard and backboard (3/32 to 1/8 in), long scale length and a large body volume (like a guitar) – and weighing less (4-6 lbs) than the traditional autoharp. Wide (3 in) thin (1/8 to ¼ in) sides provide unmatched structural support. All of these changes result in an instrument similar in sound volume to the autoharp in spite of having far fewer and less stressed strings.

7. A simple 15 bar chord mechanism, easily removable from the instrument as a whole (facilitating instant switching from a multi-key chord mechanism to a diatonic chord mechanism), and also with easy to remove individual chord bars (and requiring no springs – open celled weather-stripping instead). Or utilizing a conventional 15 bar autoharp chord mechanism with modified bars. Understand that each bar plays from 6 to 8 different chords depending on the position of the moveable bridge (the interchangeable chord bar guides will be explained later). This system also facilitates automatic chord transposition, ie, using the chord guide matching the written music while playing in a different key depending on the bridge position (much simpler than re-writing the chords on the music in a different key).

8. An instrument with a slightly wider string spacing facilitating better string attack, a shorter string stroke (because of fewer strings) and with less string tension for more comfortable play with ones’ bare fingers.

9. And lastly, because one of my prime purposes in life has been to use music, especially with children (many years working in various State Artist-in-Education programs), to foster a deep love and respect for the earth, it made sense to create an instrument (with vibrant colors) to represent a natural beautiful creative music maker like the Nightingale. If you let her, she will sing her own songs, at times, acting as a conduit, interpreting the observations and feelings of some of your most beloved wild beings. Each instrument comes with a hanger so that it can easily be displayed, when not in use, on any wall as a beautiful example of “Musical Art.”.

Please search Nightingale Autoharp on YouTube to see and listen to Nightingales being played and on eBay to see available prototype versions available for sale. Also go to Luth.org archives and search same name for more info.

pg. 3

The NIGHTINGAL FAMILY of ‘EAR’IDESCENT AUTOHARPS – INNOVATIONS/UNIQUENESS

(see US Patent # 4,481,855)

General Musical Instruments

1. Designed so that while played standing or sitting the sound body is comfortably in contact with the players chest and ear (‘ear’idescent) resulting in a most amazing sensory auditory and vibratory experience (and easily played with one’s eyes closed).

2. Additionally, a Music Therapy instrument designed to empower the deaf, hearing impaired, blind , etc., etc., to easily play.

3. An easy to make musical instrument using readily available dimensional woods/accessories and requiring few specialized tools.

General Harps

A unique 12 to 20 string ‘ear’idescent diatonic harp with moveable bridge so that it can be played in all keys (no chord mechanism).

General Autoharps

1. Fewer guitar strings with guitar tuners (phosphor bronze/steel and nylon option on the smallest version).

2. A deep large body with thin sound and back boards and sides with a strong independent non-interfering interior structure

3. On the 16 string instrument in 1 key mode, there are at least 7 notes in all chords – 1 more than on a 6 string guitar. On the 14 string instrument there are at least 6 notes in all chords (7 in one). And with many strings on all versions, the notes in melodies sustain for a long time like a harp (versus a guitar where changing notes fretted on the same string mutes the previous note).

4. A moveable bridge so that it can be played in all keys and instantly brought to A-440 or another pitch without having to individually re-tune all the strings. This also enables the instrument to be played in a variety of different pitch ranges.

5. An optional instantly removable chord mechanism to give the look and feel of playing a diatonic harp.

6. The addition of power and partial 7th chords on a diatonically tuned instrument facilitating play in several “pseudo-keys.”

7. A chord mechanism situated so as to avoid the necessity of strumming cross-handed and easily played with the eyes closed.

8. With my quick release chord mechanism, instantly removable/replaceable chord bars and instantly adjustable longitudinally on the instrument to suit different players preferences and minimizing nodal feedback.

9. The combination of interchangeable chord guides for reading music in different keys and a moveable bridge for playing in many keys means the instrument is capable of transposing music automatically, i.e., use the chord guide fitting the key the music is written in and move the bridge to the key you want to actually play the music in.

10. Wider string spacing increasing string attack and simplifying the felting process.

11. Choice of various interchangeable key combination set-ups to suit the preferences of different players.

Please see the GAL Journal article and Web Extras as general guides for the Nightingales.

There has been a mid-July 2022 update reflected in this document, incorporating some changes in these designs, and particularly, a new last minute return of the smaller Model X (Baby).

The following best describes the latest actual design details, super-seeding the GAL article/archives.

Because of so many minor revisions to the following over the last several months, please don’t be surprised to find some errors/inconsistencies. My apologies.

Most favored by me = mostly guitar tuners (G) along with 3 zither pin versions (P) (**** = favorites)

XP, XG and XGS (nylon soprano) all 12’s ; AG-14 & 16 and AP-16 ; BG-16 and BP-20

pg. 4

B. PLAYING a NIGHTINGALE

The MODEL AG 14 string NIGHTINGALE in the G/C Keys Set-up

PLAYING in PSUEDO and ADJUNCT KEYS and CHANGING BRIDGE POSITIONS

Please note: Most Nightingales are designed to be played in one key at a time (diatonically tuned). The 16 string Model B is also available with an optional set of chord bars so that it can be played in 2 full keys at a time (using the same strings and a modest re-tuning). The 20 string version can be played in 3 keys at a time.

Additionally, they all incorporate a moveable bridge so they can be played in all keys (like capoeing a guitar). And, as an extra bonus, at each bridge position they can be played in either of 2 adjunct keys, simply by re-tuning 1 or 2 strings.

And, utilizing partial 7th chords (for example Dp7 = d a c and Ap7 = a e g) and power chords (open 5ths – D5 = d a and A5 = a e) the range of “pseudo keys” playable in a diatonic tuning can be extended by 1 or 2 keys. For example, the above chords added to a set of conventional key of C chords extends play to the keys of (G) and (D) – see the example which follows.

And, as if that weren’t enough, you will have to experience for yourself an instrument specifically designed to be played comfortably in contact with one’s chest and ear and easily played with the eyes closed – an esoteric experience.

An Example – Lets look at the 14 string Model A version in a little more detail to make sense of the above.

The moveable bridge can be placed at any of the positions below (-1 to 8 – marked on the sideboard) and played in the keys indicated at each position. The Keys G/C Set-up is a good one for those mostly playing in the keys of G, C and D, sometimes shifting to the keys of A, D and E with F, Bb and C available with the instrument tuned down slightly. As an example (see the 3rd line below) in the primary key of C the pseudo-keys playable are (G) and (D) and in the primary key of G the pseudo-key playable is (D).

     bridge positions       8           7           6           5            4           3           2             1           0                -1     (tuned down)

approximate scales      13      13-3/4   14-5/8  15-1/2    16-3/8   17-3/8   18-1/2    19-5/8   20-3/4           22

    primary keys             DorG   C#orF#   CorF    BorE   BborEb   AorD   AborDb   GorC   F#oror  ForBb       EorA

pseudo-keys (A)(D,A) (G#)(C#,G#) (G)(C,G) (F#)(B.F#) (F) (Bb.F) (E)(A.E) (Eb)(Ab.Eb) (D)(G.D) (C#)(F#.C#) (C)(F. C)

For example, at the G or C bridge position (1), here are the Tuning and Chords for playing in the key of C:

string no. 14 13 12 11 *10* 9 8 7 6 5 4 *3* 2 1

key of C tuning guide G C d e f g a b c d e f g a @ 1 bridge position

chord bar # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

C chord guide Cadd2 Cs4 F Bdim C Am (G) Em Dm Gs4 Dp7 Cj7 Ap7 Fj7 Dm7

Primary key C, pseudo keys (G) & (D) – examples of I-IV-V chords in each key – C = C F G; (G) = G C Dp7; (D) = D5 G Ap7. The power chord above (D5) is played by simultaneously depressing the 2 bars indicated (Dm + Dp7). The addition of the partial 7ths and power chords facilitates play in the additional keys of (G) and (D) while remaining in a diatonic tuning.

At the same bridge position, a slight re-tuning (the two f notes to f# – indicated on the Tuning Guide) and the instrument converts into playing in the key of G. Notice how some of the chord bars change the chords being played due to the tuning change. The chord bars themselves do not change, only the Chord Guide is flipped over (this will be discussed later in more detail).

string no. 14 13 12 11 *10* 9 8 7 6 5 4 *3* 2 1

key of G tuning guide G C d e f# g a b c d e f# g a @ #1 bridge position

chord bar # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

G chord guide Cadd2 Cs#4 F#dim Bm C Am G Em (D) Gs4 Dp7 Cj7 Ap7 Am6 D7

Primary key G, pseudo key (D) – examples of I – IV – V chords in each key – G = G C D or Dp7; (D) = D G Ap7.

Note: If one is not interested in playing in pseudo keys, other traditional diatonic chords can be substituted in lieu of bars 11-13, like dominant 7ths, major 7ths, minor 7ths, add 2 and add 9 chords, suspended chords, etc.

pg. 5

the TUNING and CHORD GUIDES

These small interchangeable guides are stored on the chord mechanism. The Tuning Guide for the desired key(s) [indicated in CAPS and underlined] fits on the instrument headpiece under the strings for use when tuning (held in place with small pieces of Velcro). The Chord Guide fitting the key one is either playing or reading the music in is placed on the chord mechanism along side the chord bars identifying the chord produced by each bar. The underlined letter(s) corresponds to the primary key applicable and the letter(s) in parens correspond to the pseudo key(s) applicable. (More details to follow.)

Continuing with an example using the 14 string Model A Nightingale (same procedure for all Models)

Lets assume we are still in the STANDARD G or C set-up. We have already explained how to play in the primary keys of C or G

Note: If you come back to play sometime later and the entire instrument is either a bit sharp or flat and you want to play at A-440, instead of re-tuning all the strings, simply move the bridge slightly and you will instantly be at A-440 tuning.

Changing to a key at a different bridge position

Lets say we now want to play in the primary key of A

First, we move the bridge to the #3 position (or close to it) which is marked on the side-board. Keep the string reference dots on the bridge between the same strings as the acorn nuts on the traveler and move the traveler up to the new bridge location as well (slightly loosen and then re-tighten the traveler nuts in the new position – this device keeps the strings in alignment and eliminates buzzing).

     bridge positions       8           7           6           5            4           3           2             1           0                -1     (tuned down)

approximate scales      13      13-3/4   14-5/8  15-1/2    16-3/8   17-3/8   18-1/2    19-5/8   20-3/4           22

    primary keys             DorG   C#orF#   CorF    BorE   BborEb   AorD   AborDb   GorC   F#oror  ForBb       EorA

pseudo-keys (A)(D,A) (G#)(C#,G#) (G)(C,G) (F#)(B.F#) (F) (Bb.F) (E)(A.E) (Eb)(Ab.Eb) (D)(G.D) (C#)(F#.C#) (C)(F. C)

Then we place the A Tuning Guide under the strings on the headpiece and tune the instrument accordingly.

(Note: very little re-tuning should be required as all the strings have been sharpened by the same amount when moving the bridge.

1-3 strings may require slight re-tuning because of the varying string stress levels in the strings. If in tune at a bridge position slightly different from the original designated position, when moving to a new bridge position adjust accordingly. This is easily done by locating the bridge and checking the tuning on a few of the middle strings.)

string no. 14 13 12 11 *10* 9 8 7 6 5 4 *3* 2 1

key of A tuning guide A D e f# g# a b c# d e f# g# a b @ #3 bridge position

Then we place the A Chord Guide in the reading position on the chord mechanism and you are ready to play.

chord bar # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

A chord guide Dadd2 Ds#4 G#dim C#m D Bm A F#m (E) As4 Ep7 Dj7 Bp7 Bm6 E7

One can also play in the pseudo-key of (E) = E A Bp7

If you would now like to play in the key of D instead, flip the Chord Guide over and re-tune the two g# notes to g (see the Tuning Guide explanation on the following page), and presto you will be ready to play in the key of D.

string no. 14 13 12 11 *10* 9 8 7 6 5 4 *3* 2 1

key of D tuning guide A D e f# g a b c# d e f# g a b @ #3 bridge position

chord bar # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

D chord guide Dadd2 Ds4 G C#dim D Bm (A) F#m Em As4 Ep7 Dj7 Bp7 Gj7 Em7

One can also play in the pseudo-keys of A & E

pg. 6

Explaining the TUNING GUIDES in more detail

Tuning Guides identify the applicable underlined in CAPS primary key(s) on each guide. Simply move the bridge to the bridge position on the right side of the tuning guide and sideboard matching the key(s) on the Guide. Each side of the tuning guides is applicable to tuning in 2 adjunct keys. The string(s) requiring re-tuning (depending on which adjunct key is chosen) are the ones with two notes indicated. Which note to choose is on the same side of the hash mark as the key you want to play in on the sideboard. For example, if playing in C, tune to f and if playing in G, tune to f#. String reference dots (matching the acorn nuts on the traveler), are on the moveable bridge, tuning guides, the upper bridge and the headpiece (all in silver so they can be seen in low light) for ease in identifying the correct string to tune, as well as alignment marks over the 1st and last strings on the quick release chord mechanism (if the instrument is so configured).

Explaining the CHORD GUIDES and CHORD BARS in more detail

On all Chord Guides the underlined letter(s) correspond to the primary key(s) applicable and the letters in parens to the pseudo key(s) applicable. Chord guides and bars are different on the 16 string Model B version for the 1 or 2 key modes. Chord Bars (the felted lower bars) are easy to differentiate one from the other as the chord played at the 0 bridge position is clearly identified on the underside of each bar as is the numbered position of the bar in the chord mechanism. The chord (up to 6 – 1 key per side = 12 keys total) and tuning guides (up to 4 – 2 keys per side = 12 with extras for different key combinations if desired) are stored on the chord mechanism, held in place with small pieces of Velcro.

A SPECIAL FEATURE on ALL MODELS in 1 KEY MODE – AUTOMATIC CHORD TRANSPOSITION

Each instrument includes a full set of Chord and Tuning Guides to differentiate between the different chords in various keys and different tunings at each bridge position. This also enables one to read music in one key and instantly play it in another key

without going through the laborious process of transposing the chords on your sheet music. For example, in the previous 14 string example, with the bridge in the key of D position, to play a song written in the key of C just place the key of C Chord Guide on the chord mechanism and you will automatically read the song in the key of C and play it in the key of D. The only caveat here is that if you are in the tuning for a key indicated on the left side of the hash mark on the sideboard, you can only substitute a chord guide which corresponds to any of the other keys indicated on the left side of the hash mark on the sideboard and vice-versa. (More details to follow.)

PLEASE SEARCH NIGHTINGALE AUTOHARP on YOUTUBE for EXAMPLES on PLAYING a NIGHTINGALE

For additional detailed information on Nightingales and their construction,please go to the archives of The Guild of American Luthiers (Luth.org)and search NIGHTINGALE AUTOHARP

brig positions 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approx scales 13 13 ¾ 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ¾ 22

primary keys D/G C#orF# CorF BorE BborEb AorD AborDb GorC F#orB ForBb (EorA)

 

pg. 7

COMPLETE NIGHTINGALE MODEL AG -14 STRING G/C Keys Set-up USER’S GUIDE

brig positions 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approx scales 13 13 ¾ 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ¾ 22

primary keys D/G C#orF# CorF BorE BborEb AorD AborDb GorC F#orB ForBb (EorA)

pseudo-keys (A)(D.A) (G#)(C#,G#) (G)(C,G) (F#)(B.F#) (F) (Bb.F) (E)(A.E) (Eb)(Ab.Eb) (D)(G.D) (C#)(F#.C#) (C)(F. C) (B)(E.B)

string no. 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

steel string gauges 59w 47 42 38 36 32 28 24 21 17p 15 14 12 10

nylon string gauges 52w 41 37 33 31 28 25 22 40p 36 32 30 26 23

1. Decide what key you would actually like to play in.

Lets say you choose C. First, move the bridge to the Key of C position (0 on the side-board – see above). Loosen the acorn nuts slightly on the traveler, move it up against the bridge and re-tighten the nuts.

Second, place the C chord guide (see below, Guide 2, side A) on the chord mechanism (either on top or on the side depending how you will be holding the instrument – on your lap or across your body/upright against your ear respectively). The primary key name will always be underlined and the pseudo-key(s) will always be in (parens).

Complete C/G Set-up 15 BAR 1 KEY at a time CHORD GUIDES (1 or 2 pseudo-keys)

Bridge positions shown in ( ) next to the Guide #

Notation through-out: primary full key(s) = underlined; pseudo-key(s) = in (parens)

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

side A Bb guide Bbadd2 Bbs4 Eb Adim Bb Gm (F) Dm Cm Fs4 Cp7 Bbj7 Gp7 Ebj7 Cm7

Guide 1 (-1)

side B F guide Bbadd2 Bbs#4 Edim Am Bb Gm F Dm (C) Fs4 Cp7 Bbj7 Gp7 Gm6 C7

side A C guide Cadd2 Cs4 F Bdim C Am (G) Em Dm Gs4 Dp7 Cj7 Ap7 Fj7 Dm7

Guide 2 (1)

side B G guide Cadd2 Cs#4 F#dim Bm C Am G Em (D) Gs4 Dp7 Cj7 Ap7 Am6 D7

side A D guide Dadd2 Ds4 G C#dim D Bm (A) F#m Em As4 Ep7 Dj7 Bp7 Gj7 Em7

Guide 3 (3)

side B A guide Dadd2 Ds#4 G#dim C#m D Bm A F#m (E) As4 Ep7 Dj7 Bp7 Bm6 E7

 

side A Eb guide Ebadd2 Ebs4 Ab Ddim Eb Cm (Bb) Gm Fm Bbs4 Fp7 Ebj7 Cp7 Abj7 Fm7

Guide 4 (4)

side B Bb guide Ebadd2 Ebs#4 Adim Dm Eb Cm Bb Gm (F) Bbs4 Fp7 Ebj7 Cp7 Cm6 F7

 

side A E guide Eadd2 Es4 A D#dim E C#m (B) G#m F#m Bs4 F#p7 Ej7 C#p7 Aj7 F#m7

Guide 5 (5)

side B B guide Eadd2 Es#4 A#dim D#m E C#m B G#m (F#) Bs4 F#p7 Ej7 C#p7 C#m6 F#7

 

side A F guide Fadd2 Fs4 Bb Edim F Dm (C) Am Gm Cs4 Gp7 Fj7 Dp7 Bbj7 Gm7

Guide 6 (6)

side B C guide Fadd2 Fs#4 Bdim Em F Dm C Am (G) Cs4 Gp7 Fj7 Dp7 Dm6 G7

side A F# guide F#add2 F#s4 B Fdim F# D#m (C#) A#m G#m C#s4 G#p7 F#j7 D#p7 Bj7 G#m7

Guide 7 (7) optional

side B C# guide F#add2 F#s4 Cdim Fm F# D#m C# A#m (G#) C#s4 G#p7 F#j7 D#p7 D#m6 G#7

 

side A G guide Gadd2 Gs4 C F#dim G Em (D) Bm Am Ds4 Ap7 Gj7 Ep7 Cj7 Am7

Guide 8 (8) op

side B D guide Gadd2 Gs4 C#dim F#m G Em D Bm (A) Ds4 Ap7 Gj7 Ep7 Em6 A7

pg. 8

Third, find the tuning guide with the C primary key marked on the guide (see below, Guide 1, side B). Place that guide under the strings on the headpiece. Each side of the 1 key guides is applicable to tuning in 2 adjunct keys. The string(s) requiring re-tuning (depending on which adjunct key is chosen) are the ones with two notes indicated. Which note to choose is on the same side of the hash mark on the sideboard as the key you want to play in – G/C in this case. For example, if playing in C, tune to f (right side of hash mark) and if playing in G, tune to f# (left side of hash mark – see again the Keys Set-up on the previous page). The bridge position for that Key tuning is marked on the right side of the tuning guide – make sure the bridge is correctly positioned

Complete Set Model A -14 String 1 Key at a time TUNING GUIDES G/C Keys Set-up

(strings 10 & 3 re-tuned for the adjunct key – note to left for left key and to the right for the right key on the side-board & guide)

bridge

string no. 14 13 12 11 * 10 * 9 8 7 6 5 4 * 3 * 2 1 position

Side A F/Bb tuning F Bb c d e/eb f g a bb c d e/eb f g (-1)

Guide 1

Side B G/C tuning G C d e f#/f g a b c d e f#/f g a (1)

Side A A/D tuning A D e f# g#/g a b c# d e f# g#/g a b (3)

Guide 2

Side B Bb/Eb tuning Bb Eb f g a/ab bb c d eb f g a/ab bb c (4)

Side A B/E tuning B E f# g# a#/a b c# d# e f# g# a#/a b c# (5)

Guide 3

Side B C/F tuning C F g a b/bb c d e f g a b/bb c d (6)

Side A C#/F# tuning C# F# g# a# c/b c# d# f f# g# a# c/b c# d# (7)

Guide 4 (optional)

Side B D/G tuning D G a b c#/c d e f# g a b c#/c d e (8)

2. Simplifying the actual tuning process.

If you are using a clip on tuner, attach it to the upper right hand corner of the headpiece. Or you can go to PANO tune on your cell phone for tuning assistance. Because you are dealing with 14 strings, it is important to insure that you are turning the appropriate tuning machine connected to the string you want to tune. There are string reference dots on the traveler (same as the acorn nuts), the tuning guides, the upper and lower bridges and the headpiece to make it easy to correlate the string you want to tune with the appropriate tuning machine. Make sure the bridge is located at or near the bridge position indicated in parens on the right side of the tuning guide.

If you are going through all the strings from lowest to highest, moving one’s hand from one tuning machine to the next without letting go and picking the strings in the same sequence without losing your place makes it easy to make sure you are turning the tuning machine connected to the string you are plucking. If you are turning the tuning machine while plucking a string and the reading on the tuner remains unchanged, STOP, as it is likely you are not turning the tuning machine connected to the string you are plucking (the one you want to tune).

If you are continuing to play in the same key as before and not concerned about being at A-440, strum a few major chords to see how they sound. If only a few strings out, re-tune those. If instead you want to play at A-440, either move the bridge to get some strings at A-440 and re-tune the rest, or move the bridge to the appropriate key location and re-tune.

3. Strapping in options.

Experiment with the various strap buttons to determine those most suitable to your desired playing position(s) – guitar like (strap button at the base facing you and the strap button at headpiece), upright against the ear (both strap buttons at the base of the instrument) or on your lap (no strap required really). Check out the videos on YouTube under Nightingale Autoharp. Once you become comfortable with your instrument, explore the virtues and sensations of holding the instrument against your ear (sideboard or backboard) and chest and playing with your eyes closed. You can do this sitting with the instrument resting on your lap or strapped in as well as standing.

pg. 9

4. Playing the Chords in a song.

Push down gently on the end of the chord bar in line with the name of the chord you want to play and strum the chord with a pick or your finger nail. You might want to start with the instrument on your lap just to get used to the process. Later, you can rest the bottom of the instrument on your lap and place the side of the instrument against your ear as you play, experiencing an exceptional sound sensation. Over time try to involve all 4 fingers in pushing down on the chord bars.

If you encounter a 7th or maj 7th chord in your music, for example, for which there is no chord bar on the instrument, just ignore the 7th and play the root of the chord, e.g., C instead of C7. If you encounter a chord in a song not in the key you are playing in and therefore not on your chord guide, just skip it or try playing something else that sounds good (most versions come with power and partial 7th chords which can be substituted for common out of key major chords). If the song calls for an out of key minor chord, often times you can substitute its ‘relative major’ chord (see the chord substitution tables at the end of this Guide). And vice-versa, sometimes a minor chord of the same name as the major will work, e.g., Em for E. (Please note that on instruments using traditional 15 bar chord mechanisms you will have to memorize the end bars chords because of the Velcro required on the guides.)

Power chords (also referred to as ‘open 5ths’) provide a more primitive chord sound and can oftentimes be used in lieu of the root major chord. For example, here are the major chords in the key of C = C F G and the relative minor chords as well Am Dm Em. Lets say that while playing in the key of C you wanted to add a good approximation of a D chord = d f# a. Use D5 = d a (push down on 2 chord bars simultaneously, Dm + Dp7) or just play Dp7 = d a c. What if you wanted a good approximation of an

A chord = a c# e. Use A5 = a e (push down on 2 chord bars simultaneously, Am + Ap7) or just play Ap7 = a e g. Other power chords playable in the keys of C and G are C5 = C + Csus4 or Cs#4; F5 = F+ Csus4; G5 = G + Gsus4; D5 = D or Dm + Dp7 and A5 = Ap7 + Fj7 or Am6. These same relative power chords are available in all the other playable primary keys on the instrument.

5. Improvising your own piece of music – Chords and Melody.

Because all the strings are tuned in one key, this is a very easy instrument to randomly play and create your own beautiful music.(there are no wrong chords or notes). You might try making up a slow simple repetitive chord progression like C – F – C – F etc. and in between chord strums randomly pick any of the strings and you will be creating your own beautiful piece of music.

6. If playing with others, keeping the instrument at A-440 tuning.

Over time the entire instrument may go a little flat or even sharpen slightly depending on the temperature/humidity conditions it is exposed to. This is not a problem if you are playing by yourself as long as all the strings are equally sharp or flat. But if you are going to be playing with others at standard pitch, you will have to make a tuning adjustment. The simplest way to correct for this is to move the bridge slightly so that the middle strings are back at A-440 and then check all the strings to make sure they are all back at A-440 (much easier than leaving the bridge in place and re-tuning all the strings). If the instrument continues to flatten over time, you can always return to the designated bridge position for the key you want to play in and re-tune all the strings accordingly.

7. Playing in the adjunct key identified on the reverse side of the chord guide and same side of the tuning guide.

Let’s say you have been playing in the key of C and you would like to change to playing in the key of G. You will see that G is located at the same bridge position as C on the sideboard and both are indicated on the same side of the tuning guide, so leave the bridge and tuning guide where they are and simply re-tune strings no. 3 and 10 to f# (since the G is to the left on the sideboard and tuning guide, strings no.3 and 10 are tuned to the note to the left side of the hash mark (f#). Flip the chord guide over to the side shown below (G) and you are ready to play chords and pick out melodies in the key of G.

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

G chord guide Cadd2 Cs#4 F#dim Bm C Am G Em (D) Gs4 Dp7 Cj7 Ap7 Am6 D7

8. Moving the bridge to play in a different key.

The bridge position markers on the side of the instrument indicate approximate relative bridge locations (each a half-step apart, like the frets on a fretboard) for playing in other keys. So to change from playing in the key of G to the key of A for example, move the bridge the 2 full half-steps required to the A/D #2 bridge position (keeping the string reference dots on the bridge between the same strings as the acorn nuts), flip the same tuning guide over to side B, pull out and use the side of the new chord guide with an

underlined A and you will be ready to go. Most of the strings should be at A-440 in the key of A (you may have to tweak the bridge position and some of the strings slightly).

Note: if you started out in G with the bridge – lets say near the #1 bridge position – you would move it to about the #3 bridge position to get to A. Be sure to loosen the acorn nuts slightly on the mute, move it up next to the bridge, and re-tighten the nuts. Note: move the bridge down to the -1 position and re-tune to play in the “Tuned Down Keys”.

pg. 10

If instead, you would like to play in the key of D, flip the chord guide over to the underlined D side, leave the tuning guide in place and re-tune strings #3 and 10 to g (see the tuning guide # 2, side A on page 6). Please realize the instrument is not designed with the intent of constantly changing the bridge position and expecting all the strings to be in tune in the new keys.

9. Automatic Chord Transposition feature

One of the advantages of the Nightingale design is the simplicity of reading a song in one key and playing it in another without having to go through the laborious process of writing in the new key chords on your sheet music or having to move the bridge and check the tuning on all of the strings. For example, if you want to leave the bridge and tuning in the key of D position, but read a piece of music written in the key of C, just substitute the C chord guide on your chord mechanism and you will have automatically transposed the song written in C into being played in the key of D. There is one caveat explained below:

Playing/reading in the following Keys: Bb, B, C, C#, D, Eb, E, F, F# and high G. You can read in any of these keys (primary keys on the right side of the hash marks on the sideboard and play in any of the others on the right side).

Playing/reading in the following Keys: F, F#, G, Ab, A, Bb, B, C, C# and high D. You can read in any of these keys (primary keys on the left side of the hash marks on the sideboard and play in any of the others on the left side).

Should you choose to transpose your sheet music to a different key the old fashion way, some chord transposition tables have been provided for you at the end of this User’s Guide.

10. Removing/replacing the ‘quick-release’ chord mechanism.

Some Nightingales come with a quick release chord mechanism attached to the soundboard with Velcro which can be instantly removed from the instrument. You can do so when wanting to play the instrument in a harp mode (just plucking the strings – sometimes a good way to introduce young children to the instrument), or when traveling so as to protect the chord mechanism. When replacing the chord mechanism on the instrument, carefully align the black marks on both sides of the chord mechanism over the first and last strings so that the felt muting pads will mute the appropriate strings when chording. Push the mechanism down firmly on both Velcroed ends and you will be ready to go.

11. Removing individual chord bars from the ‘quick-release’ chord mechanism.

If a felt pad should become damaged on one of the lower chord bars or one needs to switch out bars because of a Chord or Set-up change the bars can easily be removed by simply pushing down on the fixed end of the upper chord bar to detach the Velcro at that end and then carefully pulling out both the upper and lower parts of the chord you are repairing or replacing. Re-glue the felt with E-6000 adhesive. When done, return the lower bar in the correct direction (bar number will on the bottom at the fixed end). For replacement adhesive backed felt go to www.autoharp.com. Extra blank lower chord bars, tuning and chord guide stock is available – see our contact information below.

12. Re-stringing the instrument.

First, remove the chord mechanism from the instrument (you can leave it in place if only changing 1 or 2 strings, but be very careful not to damage the felt padding as you push the strings under the chord mechanism). Then remove the upper part of the traveler by removing the acorn nuts and prying the upper piece apart with a small screw driver (leave the lower portion with protruding screws in approximately the same position as it will be hard to replace when the new strings are back on). Then apply a drop or two of oil to each tuning machine and replace the string(s). This would be a good time to entirely clean the instrument with a damp cloth and re-oil the wood surfaces with tongue oil or facsimile. Suggest you go to a good music store that sells individual phosphor bronze and plain steel guitar strings (the replacement string gauges are identified at the beginning of this User’s Guide – they do not all have to exactly match). Or go on-line and order single strings from http://www.stringsbymail.com. Put the chord mechanism and upper part of the traveler back on and you are ready to go. When restringing Nightingales with autoharp tuning pins, first turn the pins so that the strings are completely unwound, then cut the new string one inch longer, insert in the hole, wrap around the pin once, and then tighten with the tuning wrench.

13. Displaying on a wall.

Attached to the back of the headpiece is a brass or wood strip which will support the instrument on a picture hanger or facsimile.

14. Accessing your favorite songs

You will find the chords and lyrics to most popular and traditional songs at www.ultimate-guitar.com. You will usually have the option to choose a simplified arrangement and your choice of what key the music is written in.

pg. 11

15. Nightingale Cases

At present we do not offer cases for Nightingales. Suggest you measure the dimensions of your unique instrument and then look on-line for a soft electric piano or some other instrument gig-bag.

16. Post-script

a. Try hammering chords and notes with a thin piece of wood.

b. Experiment with felt picks.

c. Rest your ear against the back of the instrument while playing.

d. Rest your forehead against the back of the instrument, wrap both arms around the body,

and finger pick with both hands.

e. Similarly, with the instrument on your lap, finger pick with both hands.

f. Play the instrument simply as a harp – no chording is necessary.

g. When playing in a harp mode, the tuning on most strings can be increased by a half-step

(except the smallest 2 or 3 strings) and decreased by a whole step.

h. Instrument plans and building instructions are available from the Guild of American Luthiers

if you would like to try making your own instrument.

NIGHTINGALE USER’S GUIDE ADDENDUM

CHORD SUBSTITUTION GUIDE

(Works for most songs, except those written in a minor key – songs usually beginning/ending and preponderance of minor chords)

Minor Chord Substitutable Relative Major Chord

Am C

A#m/Bbm C#/Db

Bm D

Cm D#/Eb

C#m/Dbm E

Dm F

D#m/Ebm F#/Gb

Em G

Fm G#/Ab

F#m/Gbm A

Gm A#/Bb

G#m/Abm B

Other Chord Substitutions

Example chord Substitute

all dominant 7ths, e.g. G7 G

all major 7ths, e.g., Gmaj7 G

all minor 7ths, e.g., Gm7 Gm or A#/Bb (see above)

all suspendeds, e.g., Gsus G

all others, e.g., G6, G9, Gadd2, etc., G

pg. 12

Chord Transposition Tables

Key of G Chord Transposition Table

Song written in one of the keys below – select key, then read down,

for the old chord and then over to the right for the new key of G chord

Old Key A Bb C D Eb E F Replacement

Sign ### bb ## bbb #### b key of G chord

A Bb C D Eb E F = G

Bm Cm Dm Em Fm F#m Gm = Am

C#m Dm Em F#m Gm G#m Am = Bm

D Eb F G Ab A Bb = C

E F G A Bb B C = D

F#m Gm Am Bm Cm C#m Dm = Em

Note: If the old chord is not in the vertical column, like a D chord in the key of C column, the new chord is A instead of Am (majors stay majors and minors stay minors).

Key of C Chord Transposition Table

Song written in one of the keys below – select key, then read down,

for the old chord and then over to the right for the new key of C chord

Old Key G A Bb D Eb E F Replacement

Sign # ### bb ## bbb #### b key of C chord

G A Bb D Eb E F = C

Am Bm Cm Em Fm F#m Gm = Dm

Bm C#m Dm F#m Gm G#m Am = Em

C D Eb G Ab A Bb = F

D E F A Bb B C = G

Em F#m Gm Bm Cm C#m Dm = Am

Note: If the old chord is not in the vertical column, like an E chord in the key of D column, the new chord is D instead of Dm (majors stay majors and minors stay minors).

Key of D Chord Transposition Table

Song written in one of the keys below – select key, then read down,

for the old chord and then over to the right for the new key of C chord

Old Key G A Bb D Eb E F Replacement

Sign # ### bb ## bbb #### b key of D chord

G A Bb C Eb E F = D

Am Bm Cm Dm Fm F#m Gm = Em

Bm C#m Dm Em Gm G#m Am = F#m

C D Eb F Ab A Bb = G

D E F G Bb B C = A

Em F#m Gm Am Cm C#m Dm = Bm

Note: If the old chord is not in the vertical column, like an E chord in the key of D column, the new chord is D instead of Dm (majors stay majors and minors stay minors). 

pg. 13

the MODEL AP-14 (autoharp tuning pins version) – 14 string Nightingale Tuning Guides

Please note: The tuning guides on all Nightingales utilizing autoharp tuning pins are located under the strings on the soundboard just below the chord mechanism, once again attached with small pieces of Velcro.

Tuning Guides identify the applicable underlined primary keys at the bottom of each guide (pseudo-keys in parens also at the bottom), and the bridge position at the bottom. A slash (meaning or) is used to differentiate between the 2 adjunct keys for all guides in 1 key mode and a dot (meaning and) indicates the combination of keys applicable on the 16 and 20 string instruments in the 2 and 3 keys modes.

Each side of the 1 key guides is applicable to tuning in 2 adjunct keys. The string(s) requiring re-tuning (depending on which adjunct key is chosen) are the ones with two notes indicated. Which note to choose is on the same side of the hash mark as the key you want to play in at the bottom of the tuning guide. For example, if playing in C, tune to f and if playing in G, tune to f#.

String reference dots (matching the acorn nuts on the mute), are on the moveable bridge, tuning guides, the upper bridge and the headpiece (all in silver so they can be seen in low light) for ease in identifying the correct string to tune, as well as alignment marks over the 1st and last strings on the quick release chord mechanism (if applicable).

FULL SET MODEL AP – 14 STRING 1 KEY TUNING GUIDES – STANDARD C or G Set-up

string number guide #1 guide #2 guide #3 guide #4

1 g g# a b c c# d d#

2 f f# g a bb b c c#

3 e/eb f/e f#/f g#/g a/bb a#/a b/bb c/b re-tunable string for adjunct key

4 d d# e f# g g# a a#

5 c c# d e f f# g g#

6 bb b c d eb e f f#

7 a a# b c# d d# e f

8 g g# a b c c# d d#

9 f f# g a bb b c c#

10 e/eb f/e f#/f g#/g a/bb a#/a b/bb c/b re-tunable string for adjunct key

11 d d# e f# g g# a a#

12 c c# d e f f# g g#

13 bb b c d eb e f f#

14 f f# g a bb b c c#

F/Bb F#/B G/C A/D Bb/Eb B/E C/F C#/F# primary keys

(-C-) (-C#-) (-D-) (-E-) (-F-) (-F#-) (-G-) (-G#-) pseudo-key for both primary keys

(F) (F#) (G) (A) (Bb) (B) (C) (C#) added pseudo-key for right primary key only

-1 -1 0 2 3 4 5 6 bridge position

(pseudo-keys)top key in parens applies to both primary keys & lower key in parens additionally to the right primary key only

Additions

Storing clip-on tuner on back of headpiece when instrument in use and wanting to hide the tuner

pg. 14

C. DETAILED DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS

(1) MODEL X SMALL BODY VERSIONS (24 in bodies)

4 degrees body angles. Soundboard and back thickness 3/32-1/8 in.; string ht. = ½ in.; extra riser on base for all pinned versions; 15 chord bar mechanism with guides (7/16 wide) storage; leather handle. 1 key at a time. Adjunct key by re-tuning 1 or 2 strings Tail length = 13 ¼ in; riser 3/16 – ¼ in; 3 in sound hole

F/C Set-up Keys at various bridge positions

bridge positions 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approximate scales 13 13 ¾ 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ½

playable primary keys GorC F#orB ForBb EorA EborAb DorG C#orF# CorF (BorE or BborEb)

pseudo-keys (D)(G D) (C#)(F# C#) (C) (F.C) (B) (E.B) (Bb) (Eb.Bb) (A)(D.A) (G#)(C#.G#) (G)(C.G) (F#)(B.F#) (F)(Bb.F)

F/C Set-up 15 BAR 1 KEY at a time CHORDS at the base bridge position (1 or 2 pseudo-keys)

Notation through-out: primary full key(s) = underlined; pseudo-key(s) = in (parens)

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

F chord guide Cadd2 Cs4 Bb Edim F Dm (C) Am Gm Fs4 Gp7 Cj7 Dp7 Fj7 Fadd2

C chord guide Cadd2 Cs4 Bdim Em F Dm C Am (G) Fs#4 Gp7 Cj7 Dp7 Fj7 Fadd2

(2 bar open 5th power chords – C5=C+Cs4 or Cs4+Cadd2; F5=F+Cs4; G5=G or Gm+Gp7; D5=D or Dm+Dp7

or

C/G Set-up Keys at various bridge positions

(Same strings, different Key combinations and chords and high Key of C option at the 5th bridge position)

bridge positions 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approximate scales 13 13 ¾ 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ½

primary keys DorG C#orF# CorF BorE BborEb AorD AborDb GorC (F#orB or ForBb)

pseudo-keys (A)(D,A) (G#)(C#,G#) (G)(C,G) (F#)(B.F#) (F) (Bb.F) (E)(A.E) (Eb)(Ab.Eb) (D)(G.D) (C#)(F#.C#) (C)(F. C)

Please note: The Keys Set-up above is slightly different for the 12 string Soprano version

C/G Set-up 15 BAR 1 KEY at a time CHORDS at the base bridge position (1 or 2 pseudo-keys)

Notation through-out: primary full key(s) = underlined; pseudo-key(s) = in (parens

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

C chord guide Cadd2 Cs4 F Bdim C Am (G) Em Dm Gs4 Dp7 Cj7 Ap7 Fj7 Dm7

G chord guide Cadd2 Cs#4 F#dim Bm C Am G Em (D) Gs4 Dp7 Cj7 Ap7 Am6 D7

(2 bar open 5th power chords – C5=C+Cs4 or Cs#4; F5=F+Cs4; G5=G+Gs4; D5=D or Dm+Dp7; A5=Ap7+Fj7 or Am6)

pg. 15

**** XP-12 (Alto Pinned – steel strings only – C/F Set-up only) ****

Autoharp tuning pins, partial lower body 24 x 8 x 8 (6 ¼ + 1 ¾ tail) base x 2 ½ – 3 in. sides; soundboard and back thickness3/32 -1/8 in.; 4 in gap between longitudinal supports, with far left ¼ wide support added; string spacing @ 3/8 = 4.125 stroke; 1 ¼ in – 1st string inset; leg brace 1 in; 3 in. sound hole; wt = 4 lb. Soundboard bracing optional. Tuning wrench and guides are integrated into the instrument under false tail feathers. (15 bar chord mechanism or Single-bar chorder – see pg. 23.)

Alto String Sizing and Tuning at the 0 bridge position

Re-tune just 1 string (no. 6) for the adjunct key at each bridge position.

string no. 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

steel gauges 47w 42 36 34 30 26 23 21 17p 15 14 12

F tuning c3 d e f g3 a bb c4 d e f4 g4

C tuning c3 d e f g3 a b c4 d e f4 g4

Chords C = c e g c e g; F = c f a c f; G = d g b d g; Bb = d f bb d f

**** XG-12 (Alto – steel or nylon strings – either Set-up) ****

Guitar tuners, full lower body; 24 x 8 top (+ 1 in. headpiece extension) x 8 (6 ¼ + 1 ¾ tail) base x 2 ½ – 3 in. sides; ½ thumb rest; longitudinal supports gap 4 in.; headpiece 5¼ (3) x 6¾ (5) x 7¼ (4) in. @ 14 degrees. String spacing @ 3/8 = 4.125 in. stroke; ½ in. – 1st string inset 3 in. sound hole; wt 4 ½ lbs.; leg brace ½ in.; optional internal pickup. Re-tune 1 or 2 strings for the adjunct key.

Alto String Sizing and Tuning at the base bridge position

(Same as above plus the following – re-tune 2 strings for adjunct key)

string no. 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

optional nylon gauges 41w 37 33 30 28 25 22 40p 36 32 30 26

optional G tuning c3 d e f# g3 a b c4 d e f#4 g4

(Same steel strings, chords and tunings as the XP-12)

******** XGS – 12 (SOPRANO – nylon strings only – similar specs as the XG-12) ********

(Note: needs base modification to accommodate tie end strings or use “nylon string ties”)

C/G Keys Set-up at various bridge positions

(Re-tune just 1 string for the adjunct key. High Key of C option at the 6th bridge position)

bridge positions 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approximate scales 13 13 ¾ 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ½

primary keys C#orF# CorF BorE BborEb AorD AborDb GorC F#orB (ForBb EorA)

pseudo-keys (G#)(C#,G#) (G)(C,G) (F#)(B.F#) (F) (Bb.F) (E)(A.E) (Eb)(Ab.Eb) (D)(G.D) (C#)(F#.C#) (C)(F. C) (B)(E.B)

Soprano String Sizing and Tuning at the #1 bridge position

Re-tune just 1 string (no. 6) for the adjunct key at each bridge position.

string no. 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

nylon gauges 30w 28 25 22 40p 36 32 29 26 23 20 18

C tuning g a b c4 d e f g a b c5 d

G tuning g a b c4 d e f# g a b c5 d

Chords @ 0 – G = g b d g b; C = g c e g c; F = f a c f a c; D = f# a d f# a

pg. 16

and at the #6 bridge position

string no. 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

F tuning c4 d e f g a bb c5 d e f5 g

C tuning c4 d e f g a b c5 d e f5 g

Chords @ #6 – G = d g b d g; C = c e g c e g; F = c f a c f; Bb = d f bb d f

(2) MODEL A MEDIUM BODY NIGHTINGALES (26 in. bodies)

4 degrees body angles. Soundboard and back thickness 3/32-1/8 in.; string ht. = ½ in.; extra riser on base for all pinned versions; 15 chord bar mechanism with guides (7/16 wide) storage; leather handle. 1 key at a time. Adjunct key by re-tuning 1 or 2 strings; tail length = 14 ½ in; riser 1/8 – 3/16 in; 3 ½ in sound hole.

12 STRING VERSIONS ONLY

F/C Set-up Keys at various bridge positions

bridge positions 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approximate scales 13 ¾ 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ¾ 22

playable primary keys GorC F#orB ForBb EorA EborAb DorG C#orF# CorF BorE or (BborEb)

pseudo-keys (D)(G D) (C#)(F# C#) (C) (F.C) (B) (E.B) (Bb) (Eb.Bb) (A)(D.A) (G#)(C#.G#) (G)(C.G) (F#)(B.F#) (F)(Bb.F)

or

C/G Set-up Keys at various bridge positions

(Same strings, different Key combinations and chords and high Key of C option at the 5th bridge position)

bridge positions 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approximate scales 13 ¾ 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ¾ 22

primary keys DorG C#orF# CorF BorE BborEb AorD AborDb GorC F#orB or (ForBb)

pseudo-keys (A)(D,A) (G#)(C#,G#) (G)(C,G) (F#)(B.F#) (F) (Bb.F) (E)(A.E) (Eb)(Ab.Eb) (D)(G.D) (C#)(F#.C#) (C)(F. C)

AP-12 (Alto – steel strings)

Autoharp tuning pins, partial lower body 26 x 8¼ x 8 (6 ¼ + 1 ¾ tail) base x 2 ½ – 3 in. sides; soundboard and back thickness 3/32 -1/8 in.; 4 in gap between longitudinal supports, with far left ¼ wide support added; string spacing 3/8, 5/16 = 4.125 stroke; 1 ¼ in – 1st string inset; leg brace 1 in.; wt = 4 lb. Tuning wrench/guides integrated into the instrument under false tail feathers.

Re-tune 1 (C/F) or 2 (G/C) strings for the adjunct key at each bridge position.

Alto String Sizing and Tuning at the 0 bridge position

Re-tune just 1 string (no. 6) for the adjunct key at each bridge position.

string no. 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

steel gauges 45w 40 34 32 28 24 21 18p 16 14 13 11

F tuning c3 d e f g3 a bb c4 d e f4 g4

C tuning c3 d e f g3 a b c4 d e f4 g4

optional G tuning c3 d e f# g3 a b c4 d e f#4 g4

Chords C = c e g c e g; F = c f a c f; G = d g b d g; D = d f# a d f#; Bb = d f bb d f

pg. 17

AG-12 (Alto – steel or nylon strings)

Guitar tuners, full lower body; 26 x 8¼ top (+ 1 in. headpiece extension) x 8 (6¼ + 1¾ tail) base x 2½ – 3 in. sides; l longitudinal supports gap 4 in.; headpiece 5¼ (3) x 6¾ (5) x 7¼ (4) in. @ 14 degrees. String spacing @ 3/8 = 4.125 in. stroke; ½ in. 1st string inset; 3 ½ in. sound hole; wt 4 ½ lbs.; leg brace ½ in.; optional internal pickup. Re-tune 1 or 2 strings for the adjunct key. Same as above.

(Same scale lengths, strings, chords and tunings as the AP-12).

14 and 16 STRING VERSIONS ONLY

F/C Set-up Keys at various bridge positions

brig positions 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approx scales 13 13 ¾ 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ¾ 22

primary keys G/C F#orB ForBb EorA EborAb DorG C#orF# CorF BorE BborEb (AorE)

pseudo-keys (D)(G/D) (C#)(F# C#) (C) (F.C) (B) (E.B) (Bb) (Eb.Bb (A)(D.A) (G#)(C#.G#) (G)(C.G) (F#)(B.F#) (F)(Bb.F) (E)(A.E)

C/G Set-up Keys at various bridge positions

(Same strings, different Key combinations and chords and high Key of C option at the 6th bridge position)

brig positions 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approx scales 13 13 ¾ 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ¾ 22

primary keys D/G C#orF# CorF BorE BborEb AorD AborDb GorC F#orB ForBb (EorA)

pseudo-keys (A)(D.A) (G#)(C#,G#) (G)(C,G) (F#)(B.F#) (F) (Bb.F) (E)(A.E) (Eb)(Ab.Eb) (D)(G.D) (C#)(F#.C#) (C)(F. C) (B)(E.B)

AP -14 (baritone Pinned – steel strings)

Autoharp tuning pins, partial lower body 26 x 8¼ x 8 (6 ¼ + 1 ¾ tail) base x 2 ½ – 3 in. sides; soundboard and back thickness 3/32 -1/8 in.; 4 in gap between longitudinal supports, with far left ¼ wide support added; string spacing 3/8, 5/16 = 4.125 stroke; 1¼ in – 1st string inset; leg brace 1 in.; wt = 4 lb. Tuning wrench & guides are integrated into the instrument under false tail feathers.

Re-tune 1 (C/F) or 2 (G/C) strings for the adjunct key at each bridge position. Option is tuning range continuous g2 – f4. 

String Sizing and Tuning at the 0 bridge position

string no. 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

steel string gauges 59w 47 42 36 34 30 26 23 21 17p 15 14 12 10

C Tuning Guide g2 c3 d e f g a b c4 d e f g4 a

F Tuning Guide g2 c3 d e f g a bb c4 d e f g4 a

G Tuning Guide g2 c3 d e f# g a b c4 d e f# g4 a

steel (28 lbs 32 lbs 25lbs 23lbs 22lbs 22lbs 20lbs 17 lbs/56%)

chords C = g c e g c e g; F = c f a c f a; G = g d g b d g; Bb = d f bb d f; D = d f# a d f# a

******** AG –14 (baritone – steel strings) ********

Guitar tuners, full lower body; 26 x 8¼ top (+ 1 in. headpiece extension) x 8 (+ 1¾ tail) base x 2½ – 3 in. sides;

longitudinal supports gap 4 in. Headpiece 6 (3) x 6¾ (6) x 7¼ (5) in., @ 12.5 degrees, w/1 in. overlap. String spacing

@ 3/8, 5/16 = 4.125 in. stroke; ½ in – 1st string inset; 4 degrees body angles, leg brace ½ in., wt 4 ¾ lbs.; optional pickup. Re-tune 1 or 2 strings for the adjunct key at each bridge position. Same as above.

String Sizing, Tuning and Chords at the 0 bridge position same as the AP-14

pg. 18

**** AG–16 (full range baritone – steel strings) ****

Guitar tuners, full lower body; 26 x 8¼ top (+ 1 in. headpiece extension) x 8 (6 ¼ + 1 ¾ tail) base x 2 ½ – 3 in. sides; longitudinal supports gap 4 in. Headpiece 6 ¾ (4) x 6 ¾ (6) x 7 ¼ (6) in. @ 11 degrees. String spacing 5/16 x 3, 9/32 x 12; stroke = 4.3 in.; 3/8 in – 1st string inset; ½ in. thumb rest; leg brace ½ in., wt 5 lbs.; optional internal pickup. Re-tune 2 strings for the adjunct key at each bridge position.

String Sizing and Tuning at the 0 bridge position

string no. 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

steel string gauges 59w 54 49 47 42 36 34 30 26 23 21 17p 15 14 12 10

C Tuning Guide g2 a b c3 d e f g a b c4 d e f g4 a

F Tuning Guide g2 a bb c3 d e f g a bb c4 d e f g4 a

G Tuning Guide g2 a b c3 d e f# g a b c4 d e f# g4 a

chords C = g c e g c e g; F = a c f a c f a; G = g b d g b d g; Bb = bb d f bb d f; D = a d f# a d f# a

**** Also could be made in a full-bodied pinned version, as AP-16 ****

(Can be made in a 1 or 2 Keys at a time version – see the similar MODEL B-16 for guidance)

(3) MODEL B LARGE BODY VERSIONS (28 in. bodies)

(1, 2 and 3 Keys at a time)

Properties common to all Model B Guitar Tuners Nightingales

4 degrees body angles; steel strings, full lower body 28 x 8½ top (+ 1 in. headpiece extension) x 8 (6 ¼ + 1 ¾ tail) base x 2 ½ – 3 in. sides; longitudinal supports gap 4 in.; 3 ½ in. sound hole; soundboard and back thickness 3/32-1/8 in.; string ht. = ½ in.; ½ in. thumb rest; riser = 1/8 – 3/16 in.; tail @ 15 ½ in. from base; leg brace ½ in.; 15 chord bar mechanism w/guide storage; leather handle; internal pickup. As with all, length (in this case 28) = body length, not including headpiece or leg rest.

Keys Set-up at various bridge positions

bridge positions 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approximate scales 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ¾ 22 23 ¼ 24 ¾

primary keys G/C F#/B F/Bb E/A Eb/Ab D/G C#/F# C/F B/E or (Bb/Eb)

pseudo-keys (D)(G D) (C#)(F# C#) (C) (F. C) (B) (E.B) (Bb)(Eb.Bb) (A)(D.A) (G#)(C#.G#) (G)(C.G) (F#)(B.F#) (F)(Bb.F)

BG – 14

Guitar tuners; 1 key at a time, string spacing @ 3/8 x 2, 5/16 = 4.2 in. stroke. Headpiece (same as A) 6 (3) x 6 ¾ (6) x 7 ¼ (5) in. @ 12.5 degrees; wt 5 lbs.; ½ in – 1st string inset. Difference vs AG–14, larger size, scale length, bigger volume, lower tuning range.

String Sizing and Tuning at the 0 bridge position

[Re-tune 1 string (no. 6) for the adjunct key at each bridge position]

string no. 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

steel string gauges 59w 54w 42 38 34 32 28 24 21 17p 15 13 12 10

C Tuning Guide f2 g c3 d e f g a b c4 d e f g4

F Tuning Guide f2 g c3 d e f g a bb c4 d e f g4

(28 lbs 30 lbs 33lbs 33 17 lbs/56%)

chords C = g c e g c e g; F = f c f a c f; G = g d g b d g; Bb = f d f bb d f

pg. 19

15 BAR 1 KEY at a time CHORDS at the 0 bridge position (1 or 2 pseudo-keys)

(Same as the Model A’s C/F Set-up)

Also could be continuous tuning range f2 – e4 and made in a pinned version

******** BG – 16 (full range baritone – 1 or 2 Keys at a time modes) ********

Guitar tuners; 1 or 2 Keys at a time modes, String spacing 5/16 x 3, 9/32 x 12; stroke = 4.3 in.; ½ in – 1st string inset; Headpiece (same as A) 6¾ (4) x 6¾ (6) x 7¼ (6) in @ 11 degrees; wt 5 ½ lbs. (If to be used in only 1 mode, string gauges can vary.)

String Sizing for both modes

string no. 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

steel string gauges 59w 54 49 44 42 38 34 32 28 24 21 17p 15 13 12 10

Tuning at the 0 bridge position in the 2 Keys at a time mode

[Re-tune 2 strings for free diatonic melody play at each bridge position]

string no. 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

C & F Tuning Guide g2 a bb b c3 d e f g a bb b c4 d e f4

(33 lbs 16 lbs/44%)

chords = C = g c e g c e ; F = a c f a c f; G = g b d g b d g; Bb = bb d f bb d

2 KEYS at a time CHORDS at the 0 bridge position (1 pseudo-key)

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

F & C chord guide Cadd Cs4 Bb Gm F Dm C Am (G) Em Fs4 Cj7 Dp7 Fj7 Fadd2

(2 bar open 5th power chords – C5=C+Cs4; F5=F+Cs4; G5=Gm+G)

Note: Option to consider would be Key of C mute bar for quick diatonic melody picking instead of re-tuning 2 strings.

Tuning at the 0 bridge position in the 1 Key at a time mode

[Re-tune 2 strings (nos. 6 and 13) for the adjunct key at each bridge position]

string no. 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

C Tuning Guide f2 g a b c3 d e f g a b c4 d e f g4

F Tuning Guide f2 g a bb c3 d e f g a bb c4 d e f g4

(28 lbs 30 lbs 31 lbs 32 lbs 33 17 lbs/56%)

chords = C= g c e g c e g; F= f a c f a c f; G= g b d g b d g; Bb= f bb d f bb d

1 KEY at a time CHORDS at the 0 bridge position (1 or 2 pseudo-keys)

Same as the Model A’s C/F Set-up

Also could be made in a BP-16 full-bodied pinned version w/specs similar to the BP-20 below.

pg. 20

**** BP – 20 (fullest range baritone – 3 Keys at a time) ****

Autoharp tuning pins; full lower body 28 x 8½ x 8 (+ 1¾ tail) base x 2 ½ – 3 in. sides; soundboard & back thickness 3/32-1/8 in.; 4 in gap between longitudinal supports and left side another ¼ support; ¼ in. string spacing; stroke = 4 ¾ in.; ½ in – 1st string inset; string ht.= ½ in.; risers = 1/8 to 3/16 in.; in.; leg brace 1 in.; 15 chord bars; 3 ½ in. sound hole; wt 5 ½ lbs.; tail @ 15 ½ in.; tuning wrench stored at the top. Internal pick-up and optional fine tuners. A big resonate sound coming from half the number of strings on a typical autoharp. Show on all Nightingales lowest point (neutral – no change in pitch) for lower bridge movement.

Keys Set-up @ various bridge positions

approx scales 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ¾ 22 23 ¼ 24 ¾

brig positions 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

playable keys G&C&F F#&B&E F&Bb&Eb E&A&D Eb&Ab&Db D&G&C C#&F#&B C&F&Bb B&E&A (Bb/Eb/Ab)

String sizes and Tuning at the 0 bridge position (Re-tune 4 strings for instant diatonic play)

string no. 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

steel strings 59w 54 49 47 44 42 38 36 34 32 28 25 23 21 17p 15 14 13 12 10

3 KEY TUNING f2 g a bb b c3 d eb e f g3 a bb b c4 d eb e f g

3 Keys at a time Chords at the 0 bridge position

chord bar # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Bb&F&C chord guide Fs4 Bbs4 Eb Cm Bb Gm F Dm C Am G Em Fj7 Bbj7 Ebj7

C&G&D chord guide Gs4 Cs4 F Dm C Am G Em D Bm A F#m Gj7 Cj7 Fj7

(2 bar open 5th power chords – C5=C+Cs4; F5=F+Cs4; G5=G+Gs4)

Note: Option to consider would be adding mute bar(s) for quick diatonic melody picking.

D. COMPARATIVE SUMMARIES ACROSS ALL MODELS

(1) DIMENSIONS

Autoharp Tuning Pins: 12 & 14 string versions available with Partial bodies; 16 and 20 string versions with Full bodies only.

Guitar Tuners: 12 – 16 string versions available with Full bodies only

COMMOM ACROSS All NIGHTINGALES

4 degree body angles, 2½ – 3 in. sides; 8 in base width (includes 1 ¾ tail feathers); 4 in. gap between longitudinal supports; ¼ in. structural supports; soundboard and back thickness 3/32-1/8 in.; string ht. = ½ in.; ½ in. thumb rest/chord mechanism support; 1/8 – 3/16 risers; 3 or 3 ½ in. sound hole; 15 chord bar mechanism w/guides (7/16 wide); 6 ½ x ¾ in. leather handle

Additional Commonalities across all Zither Pin versions

¾ oak tops and base; 1 in. leg rest; extra riser on base for easy string wind down

Additional Commonalities across all Guitar Tuners versions

¾ oak base; 9/16 – 5/8 oak headpieces; 1/2 x 1/8 oak headpiece hand hold/hanger, optional headpiece cut-out; ½ in. leg rest

pg. 21

OVERALL SIZE COMPARISONS

Body length Top width Base width Tail feathers ht G/C/F riser

(no headpiece or leg rest) (no headpiece) (includes 1 ¾ tail) scale length scope

MODEL X-12 24 8 8 13 ¼ 19-5/8 3 ½

XGS (Soprano) 18 ½ 4 ½

MODEL A-12 26 8 ¼ 8 14 ½ 20 ¾ 4 ¼

AG/P-14/16 19-5/8 5 ½

MODEL B 28 8 ½ 8 15 ½ 22 5

DETAILED SPECIFICATIONS by # of strings

# Strings 1st string inset string spacing stroke headpiece (on 2 ½ wide body)

Pinned Tuners dimensions tilt back angle

12 (partial body) I ¼ ½ 3/8 4–1/8 5 ¼ x 6 ¾ x 7 ¼ 14 degrees

14 (partial body) 1 ¼ ½ 3/8; 5/16 4 -1/8 6 x 6 ¾ x 7 ¼ 12.5 degrees

16 (full body) ½ ½ 5/16 x 3; 9/32 4-1/4 + 6 ¾ x 6 ¾ x 7 ¼ 11 degrees

20 (full body) ½ N/A ¼ 4 ¾ (up/across/base) N/A

Pinned Partial Bodies (false tail feathers)

Model # strings length gap body base width tail feathers total base width string spacing string stroke 1st inset

X 12 24 4 6 ¼ 1 ¾ 8 3/8 4-1/8 1 ¼

A 14 26 4 6 ¼ 1 ¾ 8 3/8; 5/16 4-1/8 1 ¼

Guitar Tuners Full Bodies

Model(s) # strings length gap body base width tail feathers total base width string spacing string stroke 1st inset

X&A 12 24/26 4 6 ¼ 1 ¾ 8 3/8 4-1/8 1/2

A&B 14 26/28 4 6 ¼ 1 ¾ 8 3/8; 5/16 4-1/8 1/2

A&B 16 26/28 4 6 ¼ 1 ¾ 8 5/16 x 3; 9/32 4-1/4+ 1/2

Pinned Full Bodies

Model(s) # strings length gap body base width tail feathers total base width string spacing string stroke 1st inset

A&B 16 26 4 6 ¼ 1 ¾ 8 5/16 x 3, 9/32 4-1/4 + 1/2

B 20 28 4 6 ¼ 1 ¾ 8 1/4 4 ¾ 1/2

pg. 22

(2) TUNINGS

tunings e2 f g a b c3 d e f g a b c4 d e4 f g a b c5 d e f g a b c6

INSTRUMENT/SCALE

guitar/25 ½ x x x x x x

baritone uk/19 x x x x

soprano uk/15 x x x x

mandolin/14 x x x x

Model X Nightingales e2 f g a b c3 d e f3 g a bb b c4 d e f4 g a bb b c5 d e f g a

(24 in body)

XP-12 strings pinned alto steel 19 ½ in. scale (CorF or GorC Set-up @ 0)

x x x x x x x x x x x x

XG-12 strings guitar tuners alto steel or nylon/19 ½ in. scale (either Set-up @ 0)

XG-12 steel x x x x x x x x x x x x

XGS-12 soprano nylon version/18 ½ in. scale x x x x x x x x x x x x

high C (C/F @ #8 & G/C @ #6) x x x x x x x x x x x x

————————————————————————————————————————————————

Model A Nightingales e2 f g a b c3 d e f3 g a b c4 d e f4 g a b c5 d e f g a b c6

(26 in body)

AP-12 strings pinned alto steel 20 ¾ in. scale (CorF or GorC Set-up @ 0)

x x x x x x x x x x x x

AG-12 strings guitar tuners alto steel or nylon (either Set-up @ 0)

x x x x x x x x x x x x

e2 f g a b c3 d e f g a b c4 d e f g a b c5 d e f g a b c6

AP/AG-14 strings (19 ½ scale) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

AP/AG-16 strings (19 ½ scale) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

Model B Nightingales e2 f g a b c3 d e f g a b c4 d e f g a b c5 d e f g a b c6

(28 in body; 22 in. scale)

BG/BP-14 strings (C or F Set-up @ 0)

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

high C or G @ #7 = 14-5/8 in x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

BG/BP-16 strings e2 f g a b c3 d e f g a b c4 d e f g a b c5 d e f g a b c6

2 keys (C & F Set-up @ 0) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

1 key (C or F Set-up @ 0) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

BP-20 strings

3 keys (C&F&Bb Set-up @ 0) x x x x x x x xx x x x xx x x xx x x

pg. 23

(3) STRING GAUGES

Tuning f2 g a bb b c d3 eb e f f# g3 a bb b c d4 eb e f f# g4 a b c5 d5

19-5/8 in. steel 59w 54 49 47 42 36 34 30 26 23 21 17p 15 14 12 10

20 ¾ in. steel 45 40 34 32 28 24 21 18p 16 14 13 11

22 inches steel 59w 54 49 47 45 42 38 36 32 30 28 26 23 21 17p 16 14 13 12 11 10

19-5/8 in. nylon 41w 37 33 30 28 25 22 40p 36 32 30 26

18 ½ in. nylon 31w 28 25 22 40p 36 32 30 26 23 20 18

(4) CHORDS

C/G Set-up 15 BAR 1 KEY at a time CHORDS at the base bridge position (1 or 2 pseudo-keys)

Notation through-out: primary full key(s) = underlined; pseudo-key(s) = in (parens)

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

C chord guide Cadd2 Cs4 F Bdim C Am (G) Em Dm Gs4 Dp7 Cj7 Ap7 Fj7 Dm7

G chord guide Cadd2 Cs#4 F#dim Bm C Am G Em (D) Gs4 Dp7 Cj7 Ap7 Am6 D7

(2 bar open 5th power chords – C5=C+Cs4 or Cs#4; F5=F+Cs4; G5=G+Gs4; D5=D or Dm+Dp7; A5=Ap7+Fj7 or Am6)

F/C Set-up 15 BAR 1 KEY at a time CHORDS at the base bridge position (1 or 2 pseudo-keys)

Notation through-out: primary full key(s) = underlined; pseudo-key(s) = in (parens)

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

F chord guide Cadd2 Cs4 Bb Edim F Dm (C) Am Gm Fs4 Gp7 Cj7 Dp7 Fj7 Fadd2

C chord guide Cadd2 Cs4 Bdim Em F Dm C Am (G) Fs#4 Gp7 Cj7 Dp7 Fj7 Fadd2

(2 bar open 5th power chords – C5=C+Cs4 or Cs4+Cadd2; F5=F+Cs4; G5=G or Gm+Gp7; D5=D or Dm+Dp7

B-16 15 BAR 2 KEYS at a time CHORDS at the base bridge position (1 pseudo-key)

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

F & C chord guide Cadd2 Cs4 Bb Gm F Dm C Am (G) Em Fs4 Cj7 Dp7 Fj7 Fadd2

(2 bar open 5th power chords – C5=C+Cs4; F5=F+Cs4; G5=Gm+G)

BP-20 15 BAR 3 KEYS at a time CHORDS at the base bridge position

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Bb&F&C chord guide Fs4 Bbs4 Eb Cm Bb Gm F Dm C Am G Em Fj7 Bbj7 Ebj7

C&G&D chord guide Gs4 Cs4 F Dm C Am G Em D Bm A F#m Gj7 Cj7 Fj7

(2 bar open 5th power chords – C5=C+Cs4; F5=F+Cs4; G5=G+Gs4)

pg. 24

XP-12 Single-bar chorder version

Suitable for lap chording and negating the need for any chord mechanism thereby greatly reducing the cost. Also great for random ‘ear’idescent harp melody play. With the single bar chorder the 12 Key of C chords = Am/Am7, C/Cj7, Dm/Dm7, Em/Em7, F/Fj7 and G/G7. The guides combine both tuning and chords and fit under the strings. The Single-bar chorder is integrated into the instrument under the false tail feathers. No pseudo keys available. The upper case letters indicate the various chording positions (aswell as the tuning). The underlined letters correspond to the playable key at the appropriate bridge position. It incorporates a simple single hand held bar with felts on the bottom spaced so that when pushed down on the strings at different locations it produces all major, minor, dominant and major 7th chords in the key one is playing in. It is placed on the strings to the left of the tuning guide, with one end resting on the riser provided on the soundboard. It is moved laterally across the strings withthe marker pointing to the upper case letters on the chord/tuning guide (which also represent the chord being played). Push the bar down evenly and gently and strum across the strings and you will get the chord the marker is pointing to. If you tilt the bar chorder about 45 degrees to the left and strum, you will get the 7th of the chord indicated. Re-tune 1 string for the adjunct key.

Single Bar Chorder Chord/Tuning Guides

guide no. 1 guide no. 2 guide no. 3

(tilt for 7ths) (tilt for 7ths) (tilt for 7ths)

side A side B side A side B side A side B

string no. keys = F C G D A E

1 g g a a b b

2 f f g g a a

3 e e f# f# g# g#

4 Dm Dm Em Em F#m F#m

5 C C D D E E

6 Bb b C c# D d# re-tunable string for adjunct key

7 Am Am Bm Bm C#m C#m

8 Gm G Am A Bm B

9 F F G G A A

10 e Em f# F#m g# G#m

11 Dm Dm Em Em F#m F#m

12 C C D D E E

*** Please note: When locating bridge positions, first identify the G/C/F bridge position by the scale length noted in the specifications. Second, from that starting point, move the bridge, and with a tuner, accurately identify the other bridge positions. Finally, move the bridge towards the base and identify and mark that place where additional movement has little or no effect on changing the string pitches. This will generally mark the location of Keys playable in a tuned down mode. Those Key names could be identified on the side-board in ( ).

pg. 25

E. LUTHIER NOTES

Best I can do as of July 2022 – many possible options. Look at drawings & photos, but this guide best detail

My favorites – XG-12 steel (C/F) and XGS-12 nylon (G/C); AG-14 (G/C); AG or AP-16 (G/C); BG-16 (C/F); BP-20

A good beginning instrument to get started would be the AP-14 or 16 – pinned w/steel strings or the AG-14 w/ guitar tuners

Suggest serious builders refer to all of the GAL Journal photos for additional (not necessarily definitive) guidance.

Just 3 basic body types, in pinned and guitar tuners versions. When encountering minor variations in some dimensions between this guidance and the drawings, refer to this guidance. There are probably some minor mistakes herein.

Just to be clear, on autoharp tuning pin versions, tops and bases from ¾ oak or maple. On guitar tuners versions, bases the same and headpieces from 9/16 to 5/8 thick oak or maple. Longitudinal supports on all versions either ¼ x 2 ½ to 3 in. poplar or oak.

I’d like to reinforce the possibility that all of the variations can actually be made using autoharp tuning pins if one prefers, and most without going to the trouble of using full bodies (meaning the resonating chamber extends below the tail feathers),nor requiring kerfing, bracing, bending wood and installing a support to hold one end of same.

Regarding the spacing of guitar tuners, I have been using single economy tuners from Stewart-MacDonald. In order to achieve a balanced look for the strings on the headpiece, one needs to experiment with the placement of each tuner. For instance, from the specs for the Model AG 12 string on pg. 6, you will note that it reads “headpiece 5¼ (3) x 6 ¾ (5) x7¼ (4) in @ 14 degrees”.

To get a nice balanced string look, try placing 3 tuners on the 5 ¼ right side of the headpiece, 5 tuners along the 6 ¾ top, and 4 more tuners along the left side (the 7 ¼ refers to the overall width of the headpiece at the bottom – not the left side dimension). The distances between tuners will vary in most cases (except maybe along the top where you can use a 6 string jig as a guide). The 14 degrees refers to the angle of the headpiece relative to the instrument body. String spacing is varied to increase attack on large diameter strings. Note slightly wider string spacing and strokes on 14 and 16 string versions in this document vs drawings.

Dark headpiece and bridges with silver reference dots. Guides black ink on beige background. Use traditional 15 bar autoharp chord bar holders (with 2 part chord bars – see photos). Risers on chord bars 7/8 and 1/2 in. Tuning Guide (2 keys/side) in use fits under the strings on the headpiece. Make base of all headpieces 7 ¼ and tops 6 ¾ in. wide and headpiece overhang on the right side 1 in. All tuners inset ½ in. from edges. Start tuners up 7/8 in to insure no interference with Tuning Guides. Tuning Guides 1/16 x 7/16 x 7-1/8 in.(up to 5 = 12 key signatures) stored between chord bar holders w/Velcro. Outside edges of holders spaced at 7 ½ in. apart. Chord Guides 1/16 x 7/16 x 6-1/8 in. (up to 6 = 12 key signatures) stored on tops and sides of chord bar holders w/Velcro. Thumb rest/extension for chord bar holder 1/2 in. Add interior chord bar tabs to odd numbered chord bars for lap play. Room for clip on tuner on the headpiece for all guitar tuners versions and at the upper right corner of the instrument tapering down to the thumb rest/chord bar holder on pinned full-bodied versions (on partial body versions, clip tuner to tail feathers). On versions with nylon strings the end piece needs to be modified slightly to accommodate tie end nylon strings (there are end tabs available for nylon strings). Add a leather strap on the side near the chord bar mechanism.

On all versions, areas to experiment include: size and placement of sound hole (traditional mid-way sound hole or hole at the base?) and full vs partial body (false tail feathers) and on pinned versions, pre-drilled tuning pins at angle? Also bracing configurations, oak longitudinal supports and angled riser at base. Tail feathers transition attachment means for full-bodied versions. Left side 1/8 or ¼ in on guitar tuner versions? Alaska Specialty Woods has long Dulcimer sitka spruce soundboards (0.180 thickness) which when joined and planned down further make for perfect Nightingale soundboards. 1/8 birch plywood good for backs and sides. 2 varying sets of key set-ups, could be reduced to 1? No matter what, great similarities across all variations with respect to chords and position thereof (see summaries) simplifying making the guides. Little overlap in tuning guides because of differences in no. of  strings, string spacing and insert distances all of which could probably undergo more simplification. Same chord mechanisms and chord bar lengths on all variations. From the chord and tuning information provided in this document at the 0 bridge position, it will be easy to create chord and tuning guides for all the other bridge positions. (See new Chord & Tuning Guides document.)

All strings can be re-tuned to other pitches, lowing as much as a whole step (but no raising) to facilitate different tunings (useful for harp melody play). Actual Chords and their sequencing easily modified. Traveler to rigidify and keep the strings from buzzing are important. The instrument can also be easily played with one’s ear against the back or other side and sounds quite good when played as a hand drum as well as hammering chords in a lap mode.

Looking back – consider making the Seven Arrows quick release chord mechanism (very easy to change out chord bars)

PLEASE VISIT “The Child Who Went to the Zoo – the RE-WILDING Musical” on YouTube

pg. 26

More summary (possibly redundant) information

1. Regarding all models, they are now based on very similar body dimensions and string strokes. This also means they all share the same length bridges, travelers, risers, chord bars, chord and tuning guides.

Show on all Nightingales, along with Key Names & nos., the lowest moveable bridge point (neutral – no change in pitch).

2. Use a standard 15 bar autoharp chord mechanism, now located higher up on the instrument, above the sound hole. It is bolted to the thumb rest on the right side in 2 places and screwed into the soundboard in 3 places on the other end. All the chord and tuning guides are stored on the tops and sides and between the chord bar holders (held in place with small pieces of Velcro).

3. Each side of a chord guide is associated with one key while each side of a tuning tuning guide is associated with a minimum of two adjunct keys (except in the case of the 3 key Model BP-20).

4. When tuning all of the guitar tuners versions, the tuning guide is placed on the headpiece just above the bridge (held in place with small pieces of Velcro). There is room at the upper right hand side of the headpiece for a clip-on tuner.

5. The uneven spacing of the tuning machines on these headpieces is intended to even out the spacing of the stringscoming off the top, thereby giving the instrument a more symmetrical look (a totally trial and error exercise).

6. Removing a portion of the headpiece to reduce the instruments weight and give it a different look is entirely optional.

I do however suggest adding a means by which the instrument can easily be carried or hung on a wall such as a 1/2 wide x 1/8 in thick piece of oak rounded on the lower edge (nice hand hold when picking the instrument up) screwed at a right angle to the back of both ends of the longitudinal supports (see the photos). The clip-on tuner can be attached behind the headpiece to hide it from view while the instrument is being played. Consider using different color tuning machines easily identifying the adjunct key strings.

7. The size and positioning of the soundboard X brace is my best guess and seems to be working fine – I am no expert.

8. Regarding the placement of the sound hole with painted heart, the drawings are an accurate reflection of the location of a birds heart (down low and towards the front, unlike on humans).

9. String reference dots – small silver dots (visible in low light on dark backgrounds) located on the moveable and top bridge and between the headpiece tuners to help guide the player to the correct string for tuning are indicated on the drawings. The traveler acorn nuts are located at the same spacing as the string reference dots. The bridges and headpiece need to be stained dark.

10. The stains chosen to best represent a Nightingale’s coloration are Minwax classic gray #271 for the head and beak, and gunstock#231 for the tail feathers. Before staining I add a pre-stain over the entire body which also seems to act as a good sanding sealer. I usually try to use pieces of iridescent glass or gem stones for the eye. The outlining and feathering details are done with permanent ink pens. Of course, there is much latitude for those with the inclination and skills to embellish upon what I have done.

11. If one is creating a Model X or A 12 string version, which is to be outfitted with either nylon or steel strings, the riser may need to be located parallel to and along the upper edge of the base, thereby allowing room for string thru holes to be drilled 3/8 in from the lower edge of the base at a 45 degree angle to facilitate ball or tie-end nylon strings.

12. Since I have been dependent on using dimensional woods available at my local lumber store, I have been using nominal ¼ x 2 ½ poplar for the longitudinal supports. If one is not so limited, consider making that actual width 2 ¾-3 in. That extra ¼-½ in will give a little more clearance for the top row of tuning machines when the instrument is resting on a table. (Best to make a drawing using your finished headpiece dimensions to insure that there is some tuners clearance when the instrument is laid flat on its back.)

13. If using screws to tie the frame together (#6), those tieing the ½ poplar into the longitudinal supports at the top are not shown. What is shown are the screws through the left piece of poplar added at the top into the additional bracing glued to the left longitudinal support to better support the headpiece. This I have added to insure a good secure structure.

14. Regarding string sizing, I have done the best I could do using string gauge calculators. I am pretty confident about the nylon string sizing for the 12 string soprano version of the Model X (tight), but not quite so certain about the alto 12 string verion.

15. Regarding the two part chord bars and where on the top bar to start the angled cut, it will most likely be around the mid-point of the bar itself (offset to the left of the strings center point – experiment and observe where it needs to be so that the bottom bar ends up pushing down evenly on all the strings).

16. Complete sets of CHORD and TUNING GUIDES for both Set-ups (G/C or C/F) and at all bridge positions can be found in the new document entitled CHORD and TUNING GUIDES.

The remainder of this document is based on information that may require a little tweaking. My apologies for someredundancy between what one has already read and the following. Double check everything before cutting/drilling.

pg. 27

Materials List (my apologies for some redundancy and possible inaccuracies)

Headpiece ¾ x 7 ¼ -5/16 oak or maple planned to 9/16-5/8, base ¾ x 2 ½ – 3 oak, right side and internal support ¼ x 2 ½ – 3 poplar or oak, left side and tail 1/8 birch plywood, top spacers ½ x 2 ½ – 3 poplar, soundboard and backboard 3/32 to 1/8 birch plywood or spruce (try thin brass as well), bridges 3/8 – ½ oak shoe molding, string riser 1/8 – 3/16 x 5/16 oak or maple, guitar or mandolin kerfing, bridge detail and end pins = 1/8 brass rod and 1 in piano bridge pins, economy guitar tuners, autoharp tuning pins, # 6 screws of various lengths, mute from tongue depressors and tighteners 4-40 x 3/8 screws, plain and lock washers with brass acorn nuts.

the Quick Release Chord Mechanism

Ends made from 1 x 1 corner molding, sides from 3/8 basswood, ¾ x ½ open cell weather stripping in lieu of springs, lower chord bars from 1/8 oak or maple, upper bars from ¼ x ½ basswood, keepers from 1/16 to 1/8 bass wood, dividers 1 in # 14 escutcheon pins, felt ¼ x 5/16, tuning and chord guides 1/16 basswood, ¾ beige Velcro. The traditional 15 bar autoharp chord mechanism can be converted into one that is easily moved up and down the instrument by simply screwing in rigid sides from 1/8 to ¼ in. poplar or oak at the top and bottom. This also provides additional space to store tuning and chord guides.

Tools Required

Almost all of the above dimensional wood available at local wood suppliers, Michaels and Woodcraft. Specialized tool – planer. Other small tools – compound electric miter saw, hand miter saw, drill press, band saw, table mounted belt sander, hand drill, router (optional).

Chord Bars

Chord bar sequencing is simply a suggested option. The intent is to keep as many of the major, dominant 7th and partial 7th chords in one row and to make open 5th power chords (depressing 2 bars at a time) as easy to execute as possible. Additionally, as much as possible, to make the major and minor chords in the primary key(s) to line up in the same relative positions in the chord mechanisms. One can always change the sequencing and the chords themselves, e.g., change out some of the partial 7th chords. Check sequencing of chords to minimize nodal feedback for most commonly played chords at most common bridge positions.

Keys Set-ups and string sizing

There are optional ways to set-up playable key combinations at various frets and the chords playable.

**** Miscellaneous Notes ****

The bridge positions (0 – 7) indicated on the sideboard are approximations and are best identified through testing once the optimum 0 bridge position scale length has been marked and the instrument has been strung and tuned (not necessarily a fretboard replica because of the variable angle of the strings at the bridge as it is moved). If wanting to play in the “tuned down keys” move the bridge towards the base to that point where further movement is difficult and doing so is not lowering the pitch.

The quick release chord mechanism is optional. All versions could be made using the standard 15 bar autoharp chord mechanism. The quick release chord mechanism is most suitable for those using different key set-ups and changing from 1 to 2 key modes on the 16 string instrument.

The term mute has been changed to traveler as its purpose is to rigidify the strings coming off the bridge and eliminate buzzing.

Each version can also be made using traditional autoharp tuning pins in lieu of guitar or mandolin tuners. This reduces the weight of the instrument, the complexity of making the headpiece for the tuners, and thereby reduces the cost of manufacture.

Fine tuners can also be incorporated into this design.

The uneven spacing of headpiece tuners is meant to equalize as much as possible the look of the strings coming off the bridge.

The instruments are really not designed with the intention of constantly moving the bridge from one position to another or for changing from multi-key to one key modes, as a few of the strings with each move may need some slight tweaking. Instead, the intent is to provide the flexibility to play in a large array of diatonic and multi-key modes, assuming the instrument will be played for a while in one mode and then changed to another for extended play in that mode and at a given bridge position.

Each instrument might come with some extra felt, lower chord bar stock, Chord Guide and Tuning Guide stock and Users Guide

On SHARING(the patent has long since expired) – it is my hope that persons wishing to make Nightingales will share among themselves detailed drawings, the making of chord and tuning guides and even possibly the quick release chord mechanism frame.

Additionally, as a united group, if at least 20% of all proceeds from the sale of Nightingales could go to organizations dedicated to protecting wildlife and especially wild home lands that would be a wonderful thing. Here is a short list of such groups – The Center for Biological Diversity, The Giraffe Conservation Fund, The World Wildlife Fund, The Defenders of Wildlife, The Audubon Society, The National Wildlife Federation, The Nature Conservancy, etc., etc. For those wanting a prototype instrument,

there are several available on eBay (search Nightingale Autoharp) and several more of the very latest design from me personally.

804-725-0355 dickbozung@SevenArrowsMusic.net. Check out SevenArrowsMusic.net and GuitarSimplified.com.

pg. 28

Sample Felting Template

Please note: the following is a rough example of the kind of template one would make for guidance in properly placing the felts on the lower chord bars for the typical 14 string G/C Set-up Chords. An X represents a place to remove the felt. The spacing between strings here is not to scale. On your template, drawn a line to the right of string #1 equaling the exact distance from the inside of right side of the chord mechanism to string #1 – this will serve as a guide to properly align your chord bars for felting.

Please visit www.autoharp.com to order adhesive backed felt (¼ x 5/16) and for detailed instructions on applying the felt.

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

side A C guide Cadd2 Cs4 F Bdim C Am (G) Em Dm Gs4 Dp7 Cj7 Ap7 Fj7 Dm7

Guide 2 (0)

side B G guide Cadd2 Cs#4 F#dim Bm C Am G Em (D) Gs4 Dp7 Cj7 Ap7 Am6 D7

Steel String Numbers, Gauges & Tuning @ the 0 bridge position

string numbers 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

string gauges 59w 54 42 38 33 30 27 23 18p 17 15 13 11 10

Key of C Tuning g2 c3 d e f g a b c4 d e f g a (20 in. scale)

Key of G Tuning difference f# f#

Bar # & Key of C Chords 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Key of G Chords

1. Cadd2 X X X X X X X X Cadd2

2. Csus4 (c f g) X X X X X X X Csus#4 (c f# g)

3. F (f a c) X X X X X X F#dim (f# a c)

4. Bdim (b d f) X X X X X Bm (b d f#)

5. C (c e g) X X X X X X X C

6. Am (a c e) X X X X X X Am

7. (G) X X X X X X G

string # 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Tuning g2 c3 d e f#/f g a b c4 d e f#/f g a

8. Em (e g b) X X X X X X Em

9. Dm (d f a) X X X X X X D (d f# a)

10. Gsus4 (g c d) X X X X X X X Gsus4

11. Dp7 (d a c) X X X X X X Dp7

12. Cj7 (c e g b) X X X X X X X X Cj7

13. Fj7 (f a c e) X X X X X X X Am6 (a c e f#)

14. Dsus4 (d g a) X X X X X X Dsus4

15. Ap7 (a e g) X X X X X X X Ap7

string # 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

pg. 29

F. ASSEMBLY SEQUENCING

(Guitar Tuners versions – this may require some tweaking))

Headpiece

Cut to size from 9/16 to 5/8 oak or maple. Use template as guide. Drill upper left hole on top and upper holes on both sides. Pin and clamp jig and drill rest of holes with hand drill from front (no backing needed). Finish sand both sides and edges. Stain only front and sides. Use economy individual guitar tuning machines or facsimile – easy to install & replace.

Drill bushing holes on drill press.

later

Fit to instrument. Mark cut-out and attachment holes. Cut/drill – #6 size/sand. Install bushings and tuners.

Base

Cut to size from 1 x 3 oak and mark all holes. Pre-drill all holes with 5/64 bridge pin bit. Base holes to secure to mid-support and right side sized tight for poplar (3/32). If installing internal pick-up, drill hole for jack.

After base set and holes into poplar drilled, enlarge holes in base (1/8 ?). Top screws in compression can be shorter (1 ½ vs 2). Glue for extra strength. For autoharp tuning pin versions in oak or maple drill holes with 3/16 bit.

Frame

Cut top spacer @ 4 degrees to proper width. Do all 4 degree cuts on inserts and spacers in advance so everything matches.

Cut out tuning machine ends of longitudinal supports. Start in further than needed. Clamp together and hand saw at 4 degrees and down 1/2 and saw other long cut.

Cut and glue together extra headpiece supports from ¼ and ¾ poplar.

Measure right longitudinal support and cut to length. Use headpiece and spacers as template to get correct left longitudinal support length. Drill top support holes (one is going to be for a strap button).

Cut out excess material from interior braces (¼ in on both sides but leaving a bit at both ends to match frame height).

Cut and glue bottom inserts if using screws (#6).

Drill, screw and glue box frame together. (because of inadequate tools, I have used screws to construct the frame)

Glue headpiece supports to frame (use opposite side of cut-out for parallel gluing surface)

Screw left spacer into headpiece support.

Cut left side (1/8 birch ply with kerfing or ¼ poplar to length and glue).

Glue curved support to right side with kerfing and install strap button.

Soundboard

Size soundboard, add internal bracing, cut sound hole and cut after insuring match with headpiece.

Glue soundboard and finish sand edges.

Install internal pick-up

Backboard and Headpiece

Cut backboard to size, including overhang at the base to accommodate gluing the ½ thick poplar leg rest.

Glue frame to backboard and sand (last if electrifying).

Final prep on headpiece supports, screw headpiece in place (do not glue).

pg. 30

Final steps

Oil base and then set bridge pins (#6, ¾ or 1 in.).

Cut/drill bridges (sand top bridge so can precisely drill holes for bridge pin holes) – temporarily affix headpieces to determine where pin break occurs. Stain and then oil.

Outline head, etc. and pre-stain, then stain within 2 hrs

Finish artwork detail (stain dry overnight) – beak brown

Set/glue top bridge, drill down bridge pin holes into body structure and install (use nail punch to adjust top string spacing). Use 1/8 to 5/32 brass rod for bridges.

Affix hanger – 3/8 to ½ wide 1/8 thick oak at a right angle to the ends of the headpiece supports.

(Drill feather holes and tuning wrench storage hole on top or right side bottom if making Autoharp Tuning pin version)

Varathane/lacquer top. Glue eye.

Mark key positions based on actual locations after stringing/experimentation on the side-board.

Oil sides and back. Then install strap buttons

Headpiece – dark stain; face – light grey stain with black markings; chord mechanism and mute – dark stain; tail – reddish stain with folk art feathering; base optional – light grey stain; beak – brown (Mimic actual Nightingale)

Traveler – Tongue depressors or facsimile with 5/8 adhesive backed nameboard felt attached to both interior sides. Use 4-40 x 3/8 machine screws with acorn nuts, flat & lock washers top (drill 3/32 holes thru top and bottom, then 9/64 top only) and install hardware. To install mute, slide bridge way forward to insert bottom, then slide mute back to install top.

File groves for accurate string placement on base.

Chord Mechanism

5/16″ wide x ¼ deep felt. When cutting felt error on smaller wedges as can always shave back a little. When using the manufactured 15 bar chord bar ends, glue strips to soundboard to achieve 1/16 gap between chord bar felt and the strings first for good screw hold. Chord bar tops from ¼ x ½ x 2 ft basswood and bottoms from 1/8 x 5/16 oak or maple.

Alternative Quick-release Chord Mechanism

#14 x 1 escutcheon pins; ¼ x ½ x 2 ft basswood chord bars and 1/8 maple or oak bottoms; 3/8 x 3 x 2 ft basswood sides; corner molding; 1/32, 1/16, 3/32, 1/8 basswood filler. Minimum replaceable filler would be Velcro on both sides = 1/8. Could also consider adding material under foam to raise slightly. ½ x ¾ open cell weather stripping in lieu of springs (contact cement on wood). Contact cement under Velcro. Mark both ends of chord mechanism over first and last strings for proper re-positioning.

Assembly sequencing

1. frame (pick-up hole pre-drilled prior to assembly)

2. headpiece check.

3. sides and kerfing

4. install soundboard

5. pick-up installation

7. oil base and stain/oil bridges

8. install hitch pins

9. paint heart on and install backboard and glue leg rest to extension.

pg. 31

10. finish sand

11. oil backboard and headpiece supports

12. install hanger

13. outline graphics

14. pre-stain (sides included)

15. stain

16. outlining, feathering, bridge positions

17. set headpiece

18. prep top bridge

19. set, screw and glue bridges

20. set strap buttons

21. file string indents in bottom bridge

22. mark bridge positions/keys on side-board

23. lacquer top, tail feather side and head rest side

23. glue eye

24. string loosely and add mute (prefer the word traveler as purpose is to maintain string spacing and eliminate buzzing)

25. add bridge, and headpiece reference markings

To calculate the tension in steel strings, go to – https://wahiduddin.net/calc/calc_guitar_tension_from_size.htm

To get notes in a chord or identify chord names from a series of notes go to https://www.scales-chords.com/

Some of the less common chord formations

Dm6 = b d f a; Am6 = a c e f#; Cs#4 = c f# g; Cadd2 = c d e g; Cadd4 = c e g f; C9 = c e g d; C6/Am7 = c e g a;

Fadd2 = f g a c; Gadd2 = g a b d; Gp7 = g d f; Dp7 = d a c; Ap7 = a e g

G+Gs4 = G5; C+Cs4 = C5; Cs4+Gs4 = C5; D+Ds4 = D5

Some other last minute improvements/suggestions

1. Add a leather hand hold or facsimile on the instrument side near the chord mechanism.

¾ x 6 ½ in., inset about 5/8 in from back. Leather will compress nicely so as to not interfere with the chording hand.

2. 3 strap buttons, 2 at the base and the other at the top near the headpiece. Chord bar tabs ½ and 7/8.

3. Use a compressible material under the chord bar ends so that the felt height above the strings can be tweaked over time.

4. String ties for nylon strings are available which simplify the process of securing nylon strings.

5. Try using different color tuners for the string(s) that are tweaked for the adjunct key.

*** 6. Marking bridge positions – start with the 0 position and identify all others relative to that experimentally ***

My personal (all guitar tuners) favorites (X=gap in progression of diatonic notes)

XG-12 steel alto (C/F); XGS-12 nylon soprano (G/C); AG-14 & AG-16 baritone (G/C); BG-16 – full baritone (C/F)

range @ 0 c3 – g4 f3 – c5 g2 X a4 g2 – a4 f2 – g4 (full)

range @ 5 f3 – c5 bb3 – f5 c3 X d5 c3 – d5 bb2 – c5 (full)

range @ 7 g3 – d5 c4 – g5 N/A N/A c3 – d5 (full)

pg. 32

G. KEYS, TUNING and CHORD GUIDES for all versions

a. KEYS GUIDES SUMMARY

(All based on a Guitar Fretboard of 23 ¾ in. full scale length – printed on the instrument side-board)

MODEL X NIGHTINGALES (24 in. bodies)

(All 12 string versions)

F/C Set-up Keys at various bridge positions

(Re-tune just 1 string for the adjunct key)

bridge positions 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approximate scales 13 13 ¾ 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ½

playable primary keys GorC F#orB ForBb EorA EborAb DorG C#orF# CorF BorE or BborEb

pseudo-keys (D)(G D) (C#)(F# C#) (C) (F.C) (B) (E.B) (Bb) (Eb.Bb) (A)(D.A) (G#)(C#.G#) (G)(C.G) (F#)(B.F#) (F)(Bb.F)

C/G Set-up Keys at various bridge positions

bridge positions 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approximate scales 13 13 ¾ 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ½

primary keys DorG C#orF# CorF BorE BborEb AorD AborDb GorC F#orB or ForBb

pseudo-keys (A)(D,A) (G#)(C#,G#) (G)(C,G) (F#)(B.F#) (F) (Bb.F) (E)(A.E) (Eb)(Ab.Eb) (D)(G.D) (C#)(F#.C#) (C)(F. C)

NYLON STRING SOPRANO VERSION C/G Keys Set-up at various bridge positions

(Re-tune just 1 string for the adjunct key. High Key of C option at the 6th bridge position)

bridge positions 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approx scales 12¼ 13 13 ¾ 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ½

primary keys D/G C#orF# CorF BorE BborEb AorD AborDb GorC F#orB ForBb EorA

pseudo-keys (A)(D.A) (G#)(C#,G#) (G)(C,G) (F#)(B.F#) (F) (Bb.F) (E)(A.E) (Eb)(Ab.Eb) (D)(G.D) (C#)(F#.C#) (C)(F. C) (B)(E.B)

MODEL A NIGHTINGALES (26 in. bodies)

(12, 14 and 16 string versions)

12 STRING VERSIONS

F/C Set-up Keys at various bridge positions

bridge positions 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approximate scales 13 ¾ 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ¾ 22

playable primary keys GorC F#orB ForBb EorA EborAb DorG C#orF# CorF BorE or BborEb

pseudo-keys (D)(G D) (C#)(F# C#) (C) (F.C) (B) (E.B) (Bb) (Eb.Bb) (A)(D.A) (G#)(C#.G#) (G)(C.G) (F#)(B.F#) (F)(Bb.F)

pg. 33

or

C/G Set-up Keys at various bridge positions

(Same strings, different Key combinations and chords and high Key of C option at the 5th bridge position)

bridge positions 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approximate scales 13 ¾ 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ¾ 22

primary keys DorG C#orF# CorF BorE BborEb AorD AborDb GorC F#orB or ForBb

pseudo-keys (A)(D,A) (G#)(C#,G#) (G)(C,G) (F#)(B.F#) (F) (Bb.F) (E)(A.E) (Eb)(Ab.Eb) (D)(G.D) (C#)(F#.C#) (C)(F. C)

14 and 16 STRING VERSIONS

F/C Set-up Keys at various bridge positions

bridge positions 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approx scales 13 13 ¾ 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ¾ 22

primary keys G/C F#orB ForBb EorA EborAb DorG C#orF# CorF BorE BborEb AorE

pseudo-keys (D)(G.D) (C#)(F# C#) (C) (F.C) (B) (E.B) (Bb) (Eb.Bb) (A)(D.A) (G#)(C#.G#) (G)(C.G) (F#)(B.F#) (F)(Bb.F) (E)(A.E)

C/G Set-up Keys at various bridge positions

(Same strings, different Key combinations and chords and high Key of C option at the 6th bridge position)

bridge positions 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approx scales 13 13 ¾ 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ¾ 22

primary keys D/G C#orF# CorF BorE BborEb AorD AborDb GorC F#orB ForBb EorA

pseudo-keys (A)(D.A) (G#)(C#,G#) (G)(C,G) (F#)(B.F#) (F) (Bb.F) (E)(A.E) (Eb)(Ab.Eb) (D)(G.D) (C#)(F#.C#) (C)(F. C) (B)(E.B)

MODEL B NIGHTINGALES

(14, 16 and 20 string versions)

14 and 16 string F/C Set-up Keys at various bridge positions

bridge positions 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1 (tuned down)

approximate scales 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ¾ 22 23 ¼

primary keys G/C F#/B F/Bb E/A Eb/Ab D/G C#/F# C/F B/E or Bb/Eb

pseudo-keys (D)(G D) (C#)(F# C#) (C) (F. C) (B) (E.B) (Bb)(Eb.Bb) (A)(D.A) (G#)(C#.G#) (G)(C.G) (F#)(B.F#) (F)(Bb.F)

BP-20 Keys Set-up @ various bridge positions

approximate scales 14-5/8 15 ½ 16-3/8 17-3/8 18 ½ 19-5/8 20 ¾ 22 23 ½

bridge positions 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1

playable keys G&C&F F#&B&E F&Bb&Eb E&A&D Eb&Ab&Db D&G&C C#&F#&B C&F&Bb B&E&A

pg. 34

b. CHORD GUIDES SUMMARY

Notation through-out: primary full key(s) = underlined; pseudo-key(s) = in (parens)

15 bar Chord Comparisons at the base bridge position only

C/G Set-up 15 BAR 1 KEY at a time CHORDS at the base bridge position (1 or 2 pseudo-keys)

Notation through-out: primary full key(s) = underlined; pseudo-key(s) = in (parens)

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

C chord guide Cadd2 Cs4 F Bdim C Am (G) Em Dm Gs4 Dp7 Cj7 Ap7 Fj7 Dm7

G chord guide Cadd2 Cs#4 F#dim Bm C Am G Em (D) Gs4 Dp7 Cj7 Ap7 Am6 D7

(2 bar open 5th power chords – C5=C+Cs4 or Cs#4; F5=F+Cs4; G5=G+Gs4; D5=D or Dm+Dp7; A5=Ap7+Fj7 or Am6)

F/C Set-up 15 BAR 1 KEY at a time CHORDS at the base bridge position (1 or 2 pseudo-keys)

Notation through-out: primary full key(s) = underlined; pseudo-key(s) = in (parens)

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

F chord guide Cadd2 Cs4 Bb Edim F Dm (C) Am Gm Fs4 Gp7 Cj7 Dp7 Fj7 Fadd2

C chord guide Cadd2 Cs4 Bdim Em F Dm C Am (G) Fs#4 Gp7 Cj7 Dp7 Fj7 Fadd2

(2 bar open 5th power chords – C5=C+Cs4 or Cs4+Cadd2; F5=F+Cs4; G5=G or Gm+Gp7; D5=D or Dm+Dp7)

B-16 15 BAR 2 KEYS at a time CHORDS at the base bridge position (1 pseudo-key)

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

F & C chord guide Cadd2 Cs4 Bb Gm F Dm C Am (G) Em Fs4 Cj7 Dp7 Fj7 Fadd2

(2 bar open 5th power chords – C5=C+Cs4; F5=F+Cs4; G5=Gm+G)

BP-20 15 BAR 3 KEYS at a time CHORDS at the base bridge position

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Bb&F&C chord guide Fs4 Bbs4 Eb Cm Bb Gm F Dm C Am G Em Fj7 Bbj7 Ebj7

C&G&D chord guide Gs4 Cs4 F Dm C Am G Em D Bm A F#m Gj7 Cj7 Fj7

(2 bar open 5th power chords – C5=C+Cs4; F5=F+Cs4; G5=G+Gs4)

pg. 35

c. COMPLETE CHORD BAR SETS

There is only enough room on the sides of the chord bar ends to accommodate 6 Chord Guides, so pick the 6 you prefer or store the extras somewhere else. Please double check the accuracy of all the entries that follow.

(To get notes in a chord or identify chord names from a series of notes go to https://www.scales-chords.com/)

Complete Set Models X & A – C/G Set-up 15 BAR 1 KEY at a time CHORD GUIDES (1 or 2 pseudo-keys)

Bridge positions shown in ( ) next to Guide # – these may vary depending on version

Notation through-out: primary full key(s) = underlined; pseudo-key(s) = in (parens)

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

side A Bb guide Bbadd2 Bbs4 Eb Adim Bb Gm (F) Dm Cm Fs4 Cp7 Bbj7 Gp7 Ebj7 Cm7

Guide 1 (-1)

side B F guide Bbadd2 Bbs#4 Edim Am Bb Gm F Dm (C) Fs4 Cp7 Bbj7 Gp7 Gm6 C7

side A C guide Cadd2 Cs4 F Bdim C Am (G) Em Dm Gs4 Dp7 Cj7 Ap7 Fj7 Dm7

Guide 2 (0)

side B G guide Cadd2 Cs#4 F#dim Bm C Am G Em (D) Gs4 Dp7 Cj7 Ap7 Am6 D7

 

side A D guide Dadd2 Ds4 G C#dim D Bm (A) F#m Em As4 Ep7 Dj7 Bp7 Gj7 Em7

Guide 3 (2)

side B A guide Dadd2 Ds#4 G#dim C#m D Bm A F#m (E) As4 Ep7 Dj7 Bp7 Bm6 E7

 

side A Eb guide Ebadd2 Ebs4 Ab Ddim Eb Cm (Bb) Gm Fm Bbs4 Fp7 Ebj7 Cp7 Abj7 Fm7

Guide 4 (3)

side B Bb guide Ebadd2 Ebs#4 Adim Dm Eb Cm Bb Gm (F) Bbs4 Fp7 Ebj7 Cp7 Cm6 F7

side A E guide Eadd2 Es4 A D#dim E C#m (B) G#m F#m Bs4 F#p7 Ej7 C#p7 Aj7 F#m7

Guide 5 (4)

side B B guide Eadd2 Es#4 A#dim D#m E C#m B G#m (F#) Bs4 F#p7 Ej7 C#p7 C#m6 F#7

 

side A F guide Fadd2 Fs4 Bb Edim F Dm (C) Am Gm Cs4 Gp7 Fj7 Dp7 Bbj7 Gm7

Guide 6 (5)

side B C guide Fadd2 Fs#4 Bdim Em F Dm C Am (G) Cs4 Gp7 Fj7 Dp7 Dm6 G7

 

side A F# guide F#add2 F#s4 B Fdim F# D#m (C#) A#m G#m C#s4 G#p7 F#j7 D#p7 Bj7 G#m7

Guide 7 (6) (optional)

side B C# guide F#add2 F#s4 Cdim Fm F# D#m C# A#m (G#) C#s4 G#p7 F#j7 D#p7 D#m6 G#7

 

side A G guide Gadd2 Gs4 C F#dim G Em (D) Bm Am Ds4 Ap7 Gj7 Ep7 Cj7 Am7

Guide 8 (7) (optional)

side B D guide Gadd2 Gs4 C#dim F#m G Em D Bm Am Ds4 Ap7 Gj7 Ep7 Em6 A7

pg. 36

Complete Set Models X & A & B – C/F Set-up 15 BAR 1 KEY at a time CHORD GUIDES (1 or 2 pseudo-keys)

Bridge positions shown in ( ) next to Guide # – these may vary depending on version

Notation through-out: primary full key(s) = underlined; pseudo-key(s) = in (parens)

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

side A Eb guide Bbadd2 Bbs4 Ab Ddim Eb Cm (Bb) Gm Fm Ebs4 Fp7 Bbj7 Cp7 Ebj7 Ebadd2

Guide 1 (-1)

side B Bb guide Bbadd2 Bbs4 Adim Dm Eb Cm Bb Gm (F) Ebs#4 Fp7 Bbj7 Cp7 Ebj7 Ebadd2

 

side A E guide Badd2 Bs4 A D#dim E C#m (B) G#m F#m Es4 F#p7 Bj7 C#p7 Ej7 Eadd2

Guide 2 (-1)

side B B guide Badd2 Bs4 Bbdim D#m E C#m B G#m (F#) Es#4 F#p7 Bj7 C#p7 Ej7 Eadd2

 

side A F guide Cadd2 Cs4 Bb Edim F Dm (C) Am Gm Fs4 Gp7 Cj7 Dp7 Fj7 Fadd2

Guide 3 (0)

side B C guide Cadd2 Cs4 Bdim Em F Dm C Am (G) Fs#4 Gp7 Cj7 Dp7 Fj7 Fadd2

 

side A F# guide C#add2 C#s4 B Fdim F# D#m (C#) A#m G#m F#s4 G#p7 C#j7 D#p F#j7 F#add2

Guide 4 (1) (optional)

side B C# guide C#add2 C#s4 Cdim Fm F# D#m C# A#m G#m F#s#4 G#p7 C#j7 D#p F#j7 F#add2

side A G guide Dadd2 Ds4 C F#dim G Em (D) Bm Am Gs4 Ap7 Dj7 Ep7 Gj7 Gadd2

Guide 5 (2)

side B D guide Dadd2 Ds4 C#dim F#m G Em D Bm Am Gs#4 Ap7 Dj7 Ep7 Gj7 Gadd2

 

side A Ab guide Ebadd2 Ebs4 Db Gdim Ab Fm (Eb) Cm Bbm Abs4 Bbp7 Ebj7 Fp7 Abj7 Abadd2

Guide 6 (3) (optional)

side B Eb guide Ebadd2 Ebs4 Ddim Gm Ab Fm Eb Cm Bbm Abs#4 Bbp7 Ebj7 Fp7 Abj7 Abadd2

 

side A A guide Eadd2 Es4 D G#dim A F#m (E) C#m Bm As4 Bp7 Ej7 F#p7 Aj7 Aadd2

Guide 7 (4)

side B E guide Eadd2 Es4 D#dim G#m A F#m E C#m Bm As#4 Bp7 Ej7 F#p7 Aj7 Aadd2

 

side A Bb guide Fadd2 Fs4 Eb Adim Bb Gm (F) Dm Cm Bbs4 Cp7 Fj7 Gp7 Bbj7 Bbadd2

Guide 8 (5) (optional)

side B F guide Fadd2 Fs4 Edim Am Bb Gm F Dm Cm Bbs#4 Cp7 Fj7 Gp7 Bbj7 Bbadd2

 

side A C guide Gadd2 Gs4 F Bdim C Am (G) Em Dm Cs4 Dp7 Gj7 Ap7 Cj7 Cadd2

Guide 9 (7)

side B G guide Gadd2 Gs4 F#dim Bm C Am G Em Dm Cs#4 Dp7 Gj7 Ap7 Cj7 Cadd2

pg. 37

Complete Set Model B-16 – C/F Set-up 15 BAR 2 KEYS at a time CHORD GUIDES (1 pseudo-key)

Bridge positions shown in ( ) next to Guide #

Notation through-out: primary full key(s) = underlined; pseudo-key(s) = in (parens)

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

side A Bb/Eb guide Bbadd2 Bbs4 Ab Fm Eb Cm Bb Gm (F) Dm Ebs4 Bbj7 Cp7 Ebj7 Ebadd2

Guide 1 (-1)

side B B/E guide Badd2 Bs4 A F#m E C#m B G#m (F#) D#m Es4 Bj7 C#p7 Ej7 Eadd2

side A C/F guide Cadd2 Cs4 Bb Gm F Dm C Am (G) Em Fs4 Cj7 Dp7 Fj7 Fadd2

Guide 2 (0 & 1)

side B C#/F# guide C#add2 C#s4 B G#m F# D#m C# A#m (G#) Fm F#s4 C#j7 D#p7 F#j7 F#add2

side A D/G guide Dadd2 Ds4 C Am G Em D Bm (A) F#m Gs4 Dj7 Ep7 Gj7 Gadd2

Guide 3 (2 & 3)

side B Eb/Ab guide Ebadd2 Ebs4 Db Bbm Ab Fm Eb Cm (Bb) Gm Abs4 Ebj7 Fp7 Abj7 Abadd2

side A E/A guide Eadd2 Es4 D Bm A F#m E C#m (B) G#m As4 Ej7 F#p7 Aj7 Aadd2

Guide 4 (4 & 5)

side B F/Bb guide Fadd2 Fs4 Eb Cm Bb Gm F Dm (C) Am Bbs4 Fj7 Gp7 Bbj7 Bbadd2

side A F#/B guide F#add2 F#s4 E C#m B G#m F# D#m (C#) A#m Bs4 F#j7 G#p7 Bj7 Badd2

Guide 5 (6 & 7) (optional)

side B G/C guide Gadd2 Gs4 F Dm C Am G Em (D) Bm Cs4 Gj7 Ap7 Cj7 Cadd2

16 STRING 2 to 1 KEY QUICK CONVERTABILITY

(example at the 0 Bridge Position)

One of the advantages of this set-up is the ease of going back and forth between playing in 2 full keys or 1. For example, by simply re-tuning the two b notes to bb one can still play all the chords in the key of F [plus the pseudo-keys of (C) = C, F, G5 and (G) = G5, C, Dp7/D5] and randomly finger pick any of the strings all of which fit the key of F.

Similarly, by re-tuning the two bb notes to b one can still play all the chords in the key of C [plus the pseudo-key of (G) = G, C, Dp7/D5] and randomly finger pick any of the strings all of which fit the key of C. This is almost equivalent to the 14 string Model B except for a minor variation in the range of notes. No change in chord bars or chord guides is required. The chords highlighted on the 2 key chord guide below change slightly as indicated below.

2 key F&C g a bb b c d e f g a bb b c d e f tuning

F & C chord guide Cadd2 Cs4 Bb Gm F Dm C Am (G) Em Fs4 Cj7 Dp7 Fj7 Fadd2 chords

1 key F tuning change g a bb bb c d e f g a bb bb c d e f

F chord changes Cadd2 Cs4 Bb Gm F Dm C Am Gm Edim Fs(#4) C7 Dp7 Fj7 Fadd2 bb

1 key C tuning change g a b b c d e f g a b b c d e f

C chord changes Cadd2 Cs4 Bdim G F Dm C Am (G) Em Fs4 Cj7 Dp7 Fj7 Fadd2 b

pg. 38

Complete Set Model BP-20 15 BAR 3 KEYS at a time CHORD GUIDES

Bridge positions shown in ( ) next to Guide #

Notation through-out: primary full key(s) = underlined

chord bar # 1L 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

side A B/E/A guide Es4 As4 D Bm A F#m E C#m B G#m F# D#m Ej7 Aj7 Dj7

Guide 1 (-1 & 0)

side B C/F/Bb guide Fs4 Bbs4 Eb Cm Bb Gm F Dm C Am G Em Fj7 Bbj7 Ebj7

side A C#/F#/B guide F#s4 Bs4 E C#m B G#m F# D#m C# A#m G# Fm F#j7 Bj7 Ej7

Guide 2 (1 & 2)

side B D/G/C guide Gs4 Cs4 F Dm C Am G Em D Bm A F#m Gj7 Cj7 Fj7

side A Eb/Ab/Db guide Abs4 Dbs4 Gb Ebm Db Bbm Ab Fm Eb Cm Bb Gm Abj7 Dbj7 Gbj7

Guide 3 (3 & 4)

side B E/A/D guide As4 Ds4 G Em D Bm A F#m E C#m B G#m Aj7 Dj7 Gj7

side A F/Bb/Eb guide Bbs4 Ebs4 Ab Fm Eb Cm Bb Gm F Dm C Am Bbj7 Ebj7 Abj7

Guide 4 (5 & 6)

side B G/C/F guide Cs4 Fs4 Bb Gm F Dm C Am G Em D Bm Cj7 Fj7 Bbj7

d. COMPLETE TUNING GUIDE SETS (Please confirm accuracy)

For the 1 Key at a time Versions, there are up to 5 two sided tuning guides (2 adjunct keys per side – 12 Key signatures total). 2 Guides are attached between both ends of the chord bar holders on each side of the chord mechanism (4 total) and the remaining tuning guide in use fits under the strings on the soundboard below the chord mechanism on the autoharp tuning pin versions, and under the strings at the base of the headpiece on the guitar tuners versions. As the string spacing varies from version to version, make sure the spacing between notes on the guides matches the string spacing for that version. Bridge Positions may vary.

The keys applicable to each side of the tuning guide are underlined in CAPS and the applicable bridge position indicated as well.

** Complete Set Models X & A Alto 12 String 1 key at a time TUNING GUIDES C/F Keys Set-up **

(# 6 string re-tunable for the adjunct key – note to left for left key indicted on the side-board and to the right for the right key)

bridge key

string no. 12 11 10 9 8 7 * 6 * 5 4 3 2 1 position signatures

Side A Bb/Eb tuning Bb c d Eb f g a/ab bb c d eb f -1 (bb)/(bbb)

Guide 1

Side B B/E tuning B c# d# E f# g# a#/a b c# d# e f# -1 (#####)/(####)

Side A C/F tuning C d e F g a b/bb c d e f g 0 ( )/(b)

Guide 2

Side B C#/F# tuning C# d# f F# g# a# c/b c# d# f f# g# 1 (#######)/(######)

Side A D/G tuning D e f# G a b c#/c d e f# g a 2 (##)/(#)

Guide 3

Side B Eb/Ab tuning Eb f g Ab bb c db/d eb f g ab bb 3 (bbb)/(bbbb)

Side A E/A tuning E f# g# A b c# d#/d e f# g# a b 4 (####)/(###)

Guide 4

Side B F/Bb tuning F g a Bb c d e/eb f g a bb c 5 (b)/(bb)

Side A F#/B tuning F# g# a B c# d#/d e f# g# a b c# 6 (######)/(#####)

Guide 5 (optional)

Side B G/C tuning G a bb C d e/eb f g a bb c d 7 (#)/( )

pg. 39

Complete Set Models X & A 12 String 1 Key at a time TUNING GUIDES G/C Keys Set-up

The keys applicable to each side of the tuning guide are underlined in CAPS and the applicable bridge position indicated as well.

(string #’s 9 and 2 are re-tunable for the adjunct key – note to left for left key and to the right for the right key on side-board)

bridge key

string no. 12 11 10 * 9 * 8 7 6 5 4 3 * 2 * 1 position signatures

Side A F/Bb tuning bb c d e/eb F g a Bb c d e/eb f -1 (b)/(bb)

Guide 1

Side B G/C tuning c d e f#/f G a b C d e f#/f g 0 (#)/( )

Side A A/D tuning d e f# g#/g A b c# D e f# g#/g a 2 (###)/(##)

Guide 2

Side B Bb/Eb tuning eb f g a/ab Bb c d Eb f g a/ab bb 3 (bb)/(bbb)

Side A B/E tuning e f# g# a#/a B c# d# E f# g# a#/a b 4 (#####)/(####)

Guide 3

Side B C/F tuning f g a b/bb C d e F g a b/bb c 5 ( )/(#)

Side A C#/F# tuning f# g# a# c/b C# d# f F# g# a# c/b c# 6 (#######)/(#####)

Guide 4

Side B D/G tuning g a b c#/c D e f# G a b c#/c d 7 (##)/(#)

** Complete Set Model X Soprano 12 String 1 Key at a time TUNING GUIDES G/C Keys Set-up **

The keys applicable to each side of the tuning guide are underlined in CAPS and the applicable bridge position indicated as well.

(string #’s 12 and 5 are re-tunable for the adjunct key – note to left for left key and to the right for the right key on side-board)

bridge key

string no. 12 11 10 9 8 7 *6* 5 4 3 2 1 position signatures

Side A F/Bb tuning F g a Bb c d e/eb f g a bb c -1 (b)/(bb)

Guide 1

Side B G/C tuning G a b C d e f#/f g a b c d 1 (#)/( )

Side A A/D tuning A b c# D e f# g#/g a b c# d e 3 (###)/(##)

Guide 2

Side B Bb/Eb tuning Bb c d Eb f g a/ab bb c d eb f 4 (bb)/(bbb)

Side A B/E tuning B c# d# E f# g# a#/a b c# d# e f# 5 (#####)/(####)

Guide 3

Side B C/F tuning C d e F g a b/bb c d e f g 6 ( )/(#)

Side A C#/F# tuning C# d# f F# g# a# c/b c# d# f f# g# 7 (#######)/(#####)

Guide 4

Side B D/G tuning D e f# G a b c#/c d e f# g a 8 (##)/(#)

pg. 40

** Complete Set Model A 14 String 1 Key at a time TUNING GUIDES G/C Keys Set-up **

The keys applicable to each side of the tuning guide are underlined in CAPS and the applicable bridge position indicated as well.

(string #’s 10 and 3 are re-tunable for the adjunct key – note to left for left key and to the right for the right key on side-board)

bridge

string no. 14 13 12 11 * 10 * 9 8 7 6 5 4 * 3 * 2 1 position

Side A F/Bb tuning F Bb c d e/eb f g a bb c d e/eb f g -1

Guide 1

Side B G/C tuning G C d e f#/f g a b c d e f#/f g a 0

Side A A/D tuning A D e f# g#/g a b c# d e f# g#/g a b 2

Guide 2

Side B Bb/Eb tuning Bb Eb f g a/ab bb c d eb f g a/ab bb c 3

Side A B/E tuning B E f# g# a#/a b c# d# e f# g# a#/a b c# 4

Guide 3

Side B C/F tuning C F g a b/bb c d e f g a b/bb c d 5

Side A C#/F# tuning C# F# g# a# c/b c# d# f f# g# a# c/b c# d# 6

Guide 4

Side B D/G tuning D G a b c#/c d e f# g a b c#/c d e 7

** Complete Set Model B 14 String 1 Key at a time TUNING GUIDES C/F Keys Set-up **

The keys applicable to each side of the tuning guide are underlined in CAPS and the applicable bridge position indicated as well.

(string # 6 is re-tunable for the adjunct key – note to left for left key and to the right for the right key on the side-board)

bridge

string no. 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 * 6 * 5 4 3 2 1 position

Side A Bb/Eb tuning eb f Bb c d Eb f g a/ab bb c d eb f -1

Guide 1

Side B B/E tuning e f# B c# d# E f# g# a#/a b c# d# e f# -1

Side A C/F tuning f g C d e F g a b/bb c d e f g 0

Guide 2

Side B C#/F# tuning f# g# C# d# f F# g# a# c/b c# d# f f# g# 1

Side A D/G tuning g a D e f# G a b c#/c d e f# g a 2

Guide 3

Side B Eb/Ab tuning ab bb Eb f gb Ab bb c db/d eb f g ab bb 3

Side A E/A tuning a b E f# g A b c# d#/d e f# g# a b 4

Guide 4

Side B F/Bb tuning bb c F g ab Bb c d e/eb f g a bb c 5

Side A F#/B tuning b e F# g# a B c# d#/d e f# g# a b c# 6

Guide 5 (optional)

Side B G/C tuning c f G a b C d e/eb f g a bb c d 7

pg. 41

** Complete Set Model A 16 String 1 Key at a time TUNING GUIDES C/F Keys Set-up **

The keys applicable to each side of the tuning guide are underlined in CAPS and the applicable bridge position indicated as well.

(strings # 14 & 7 are re-tunable for the adjunct key – note to left for left key and to the right for the right key on the side-board)

bridge

string no. 16 15 *14* 13 12 11 10 9 8 *7* 6 5 4 3 2 1 position

Side A Bb/Eb tuning f g a/ab Bb c d Eb f g a/ab bb c d eb f g -1

Guide 1

Side B B/E tuning f# g# a#/a B c# d# E f# g# a#/a b c# d# e f# g# -1

Side A C/F tuning g a b/bb C d e F g a b/bb c d e f g a 0

Guide 2

Side B C#/F# tuning g# a# c/b C# d# f F# g# a# c/b c# d# f f# g# a# 1

Side A D/G tuning a b c#/c D e f# G a b c#/c d e f# g a b 2

Guide 3

Side B Eb/Ab tuning bb c d/db Eb f gb Ab bb c d/db eb f gb ab bb c 3

Side A E/A tuning b c# d#/d E f# g A b c# d#/d e f# g a b c# 4

Guide 4

Side B F/Bb tuning c d e/eb F g ab Bb c d e/eb f g ab bb c d 5

Side A F#/B tuning c# d# f/e F# g# a B c# d# f/e f# g# a b c# d# 6

Guide 5 (optional)

Side B G/C tuning d e f#/f G a b C d e f#/f g a b c d e 7

Please note: forgot to include – Complete Set Model A 16 String 1 Key at a time TUNING GUIDES G/C Keys Set-up

** Complete Set Model B 16 String TUNING GUIDES C/F Keys Set-up in the 2 Keys at a time mode **

The keys applicable to each side of the tuning guide are underlined in CAPS and the applicable bridge position indicated as well.

bridge

string no. 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 position

Side A Bb/Eb tuning f g ab a Bb c d Eb f g ab a bb c d eb -1

Guide 1

Side B B/E tuning f# g# a a# B c# d# E f# g# a a# b c# d e -1

Side A C/F tuning g a bb b C d e F g a bb b c d e f 0

Guide 2

Side B C#/F# tuning g# a# b c C# d# f F# g# a# b c c# d# f f# 1

Side A D/G tuning a b c c# D e f# G a b c c# d e f# g 2

Guide 3

Side B Eb/Ab tuning bb c db d Eb f gb Ab bb c db d eb f g ab 3

Side A E/A tuning b c# d d# E f# g A b c# d d# e f# g# a 4

Guide 4

Side B F/Bb tuning c d eb e F g ab Bb c d eb e f g a bb 5

Side A F#/B tuning c# d# e f F# g# a B c# d# e f f# g# a# b 6

Guide 5 (optional)

Side B G/C tuning d e f f# G a b C d e f f# g a b c 7

pg. 42

** Complete Set Model B 16 String TUNING GUIDES C/F Keys Set-up in the 1 Key at a time mode **

The keys applicable to each side of the tuning guide are underlined in CAPS and the applicable bridge position indicated as well.

(strings # 13 & 6 are re-tunable for the adjunct key – note to left for left key and to the right for the right key on the side-board)

bridge

string no. 16 15 14 *13* 12 11 10 9 8 7 *6* 5 4 3 2 1 position

Side A Bb/Eb tuning eb f g a/ab Bb c d Eb f g a/ab bb c d eb f -1

Guide 1

Side B B/E tuning e f# g# a#/a B c# d# E f# g# a#/a b c# d# e f# -1

Side A C/F tuning f g a b/bb C d e F g a b/bb c d e f g 0

Guide 2

Side B C#/F# tuning f# g# a# c/b C# d# f F# g# a# c/b c# d# f f# g# 1

Side A D/G tuning g a b c#/c D e f# G a b c#/c d e f# g a 2

Guide 3

Side B Eb/Ab tuning ab bb c d/db Eb f gb Ab bb c d/db eb f gb ab bb 3

Side A E/A tuning a b c# d#/d E f# g A b c# d#/d e f# g a b 4

Guide 4

Side B F/Bb tuning bb c d e/eb F g ab Bb c d e/eb f g ab bb c 5

Side A F#/B tuning b c# d# f/e F# g# a B c# d# f/e f# g# a b c# 6

Guide 5 (optional)

Side B G/C tuning c d e f#/f G a b C d e f#/f g a b c d 7

** Complete Set Model BP-20 String TUNING GUIDES in the 3 Keys at a time mode **

The keys applicable to each side of the tuning guide are underlined in CAPS and the applicable bridge position indicated as well.

Bridge positions shown in ( ) next to Guide #

string no 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

side A B/E/A guide E f# g# A a# B c# d d# e f# g# a a# b c# d d# e f#

Guide 1 (-1 & 0)

side B C/F/Bb guide F g a Bb b C d eb e f g a bb b c d eb e f g

side A C#/F#/B guide F# g# a# B c C# d# e f f# g# a# b c c# d# e f f# g#

Guide 2 (1 & 2)

side B D/G/C guide G a b C c# D e f f# g a b c c# d e f f# g a

side A Eb/Ab/Db guide Ab bb c Db d Eb f gb g ab bb c db d eb f gb g ab bb

Guide 3 (3 & 4)

side B E/A/D guide A b c# D d# E f# g g# a b c# d d# e f# g g# a b

side A F/Bb/Eb guide Bb c d Eb e F g ab a bb c d eb e f g ab a bb c

Guide 4 (5 & 6)

side B G/C/F guide C d e F f# G a bb b c d e f f# g a bb b c d

pg. 43

e. AUTOHARP TUNING PINS VERTICAL TUNING GUIDES

(16 and 20 string versions not shown)

Model XP – 12 string Single Bar Chorder C/F Set-up Chord/Tuning Guides

One key per side. Key names indicated at top and underlined on guide, Upper case letters guidance for both the tuning and chords.

Bridge positions at bottom of each guide. All guides placed under the strings just below the chord mechanism.

guide no. 1 guide no. 2 guide no. 3

(tilt for 7ths) (tilt for 7ths) (tilt for 7ths)

side A side B side A side B side A side B

string no. keys = F C G D A E

1 g g a a b b

2 f f g g a a

3 e e f# f# g# g#

4 Dm Dm Em Em F#m F#m

5 C C D D E E

6 Bb b C c# D d# re-tunable string for adjunct key

7 Am Am Bm Bm C#m C#m

8 Gm G Am A Bm B

9 F F G G A A

10 e Em f# F#m g# G#m

11 Dm Dm Em Em F#m F#m

12 C C D D E E

0 0 2 2 4 4 bridge position

MODEL AP 14 STRING 1 KEY TUNING GUIDES – C or G Set-up

string number guide #1 guide #2 guide #3 guide #4

1 g g# a b c c# d e

2 f f# g a bb b c d

3 e/eb f/e f#/f g#/g a/bb a#/a b/bb c#/c (re-tunable string for adjunct key)

4 d d# e f# g g# a b

5 c c# d e f f# g a

6 bb b c d eb e f g

7 a a# b c# d d# e f#

8 g g# a b c c# d e

9 f f# g a bb b c d

10 e/eb f/e f#/f g#/g a/bb a#/a b/bb c#/c (re-tunable string for adjunct key)

11 d d# e f# g g# a b

12 c c# d e f f# g a

13 bb b c d eb e f g

14 f f# g a bb b c d

F/Bb F#/B G/C A/D Bb/Eb B/E C/F D/G primary keys

-1 -1 0 2 3 4 5 7 bridge position

pg 44.

H. APPENDIX  pg. 44


(2) GAL (luth.org) preliminary drawings scans–useful but none entirely accurate 

The following scans are from general drawings prepared by the Guild of American Luthiers. I’d like to make a few comments to add some clarity to what they are intended to represent.

a. The first SCAN is intended to represent a Nightingale made using zither pins and with a partial body”, i.e., a simpler to make rectangular structural body with false tail feathers.

(please note the end view)

b. The second scan portrays 12, 14 and 16 string guitar tuners headpieces with an emphasis on positioning the guitar tuners so that the strings come off the bridge in a symmetrical pattern (the dimensions of these headpieces have been changed slightly, primarily lengthened, to increase the symmetrical look and make room on the right side for a clip on tuner)

c. The third drawing generally represents two of the full-bodied guitar tuners versions.

(unfortunately, no end view is shown, but you can imagine the body enlarged to include the space under the tail feathers)

None of the dimensions shown represent my latest designs. The updated dimensions can be found in previous sections of this documentation. I hope to soon have updated drawings with updated  dimensions which I will try to post here or make available by mail to anyone interested.

Sorry about the confusion, but at least these drawings will give you some insight into Nightingales.

Refer back to the photos in the GAL Journal article for more insights into Nightingale construction.

*** Please note: When locating bridge positions, first identify the G/C/F bridge position by the scale length noted in the specifications. Second, from that starting point, move the bridge and with a tuner accurately identify the other bridge positions. Finally, move the bridge towards the base and identify and mark that place where additional movement has little or no effect on changing the string pitches. This will generally mark the location of Keys playable in a tuned down mode.

Those Key names could be identified on the side-board in ( ).

Keep referring back to the succeeding pages of this APPENDIX for updated drawings, specifications, building ideas, etc., all to be dated at the time of their posting or emailing or calling me (804) 725-0355.

(A variation on the familiar autoharp – US Patent 4,481,855)   Some older 2020 Photos

Please note that everything hereafter was posted back in 2013 and although still somewhat relevant, is not up to date.

16 and 14 STEEL STRING ‘TUNERS’ NIGHTINGALES

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14 STRING TUNERS NIGHTINGALE PLAYED IN UPRIGHT POSITION IN CONTACT WITH THE PLAYERS EAR and BODY

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‘EAR’ IDESCENCE DETAIL (in the shade)

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TUNING CHORD GUIDES STORAGE DETAIL

Note: scroll down through this introductory text if you would first like to look at more photographs of the various Nightingale models.

Introduction

‘Ear’-idescent Nightingales are autoharp-like instruments (an easy chording instrument, where by depressing a bar on the instrument the strings not in that chord are muted, and then strumming, you get a chord – no difficult fingering like on a guitar) with several significant differences which are summarized below:

1, Fewer strings for tuning (12-18 instead of 30-36) and guitar/mandolin tuning machines on some models for quick, easy tuning. This also results in a narrower profile when strumming chords. All standard guitar strings for easy and inexpensive re-stringing.

2. Rich 12 string guitar like sound (thin – 1/8 inch, more resonate soundboard and larger, deeper sound body – almost 3 inches – for more bass resonance). Sound hole at the bottom of the instrument on some models for uninterrupted soundboard sound transference.  Deep body construction more structurally sound.

3. Moveable bridge for play in at least 8 Keys (one, two and sometimes three at a time). This is akin to the effect guitarists achieve when they use a capo. Also, instant A-440 re-tuning of all strings. For example, if the instrument as a whole has gone a bit flat and you want to play along with someone else at standard pitch, instead of having to re-tune all of the strings individually, just move the bridge slightly and all the strings will be instantly brought into tune.

4. Auto-transposition function (read music in any Key while playing in another Key). Select the Chord Guide matching the Key of the music you are reading and move the bridge to the Key position you actually want to play in.

5. Quick release and interchangeable chord bars and quick release chord mechanism. Additionally, the chord bars are designed to be pushed down at the end, not in the middle as with traditional autoharps. This facilitates more comfortable play when the instrument is played in an upright position. Unique Single Chord Bar feature available on the 12 string models.

6. Specifically designed to be held comfortably with one’s ear (reason for the ‘ear‘- idescent naming) and chest directly in contact with the instrument and to be easily played with the eyes closed. This produces an amazing sound and vibratory sensation. All Nightingales can be chorded on the lap as well (as with traditional autoharps).

7. Tuned in one (sometimes two or three – adjunct) Key(s) at a time for easy improvisation (Keys changed by moving the bridge and/or re-tuning one or two strings).

As with all the Seven Arrows Instruments, Nightingales are designed as colorful works of art to be displayed as such on any wall or facsimile. The ‘Ear’-idescent word is one of our own making, combining the notion of an instrument specifically designed with comfortable ‘ear’ contact in mind, and ‘idescent’ derived from the word ‘iridescent’, which is characteristic of all Nightingales (they are all a colorful blending of wood, metal, paint, iridized glass and/or holographic art paper).

All Nightingale Tuning and Chord Guides, tuning wrench (pinned versions), Single Chord Bar (12 string models) are stored out of sight on the instrument for easy accessibility. Each instrument comes with strap buttons and a strap and can be optionally fitted with an external soundboard pick-up for amplification. All are easily tunable with either hand held or clip on electronic tuners.

The number of chord bars varies from 10 to 15 and at a minimum includes all major and minor chords, one suspended chord and when depressing the suspended and its relative major chord together, an ‘open 5th chord’. On models with more chord bars, included would be dominant and maj 7th chords, minor 7th chords and other optional chords.

Note: Though 10 to 15 chord bars may not seem like many at first glance, remember that when the bridge is moved to a different Key position on the soundboard (all of which are clearly marked on the soundboard), pushing the same chord bar produces an entirely different chord in that new Key, so that the total number of chords playable on the instrument equals the (number of chord bars) x (the number of Key positions), a minimum of 10 x 8 = 80 different chords. And if this seems like it might be confusing, it is really quite simple and easy, remembering that there are easily interchangeable Chord Guides on the chord mechanism for identifying the chords playable in each Key.

Summary of ‘ear’-idescent Nightingales     (latest versions)

(length x bottom width x top width – all instruments approximately 3 inches deep)

 Medium body models – 24 x 7 x 9 inches – approximately 3 1/2 lbs

1. ‘Pinned‘ version using traditional autoharp tuning pins – 12 steel or nylon strings, 10 chord bars (optional), single chord bar, string spacing 11/32 inch, one Key at a time (C/F mode).

2. ‘Tuners‘ version using mandolin tuning machines – 12 nylon or steel strings, 10 chord bars (optional), single chord bar, string spacing 11/32 inch, one Key at a time (C/F mode – add 5 inches to overall length of instrument for tuners headpiece and 1 lb to the weight).

Large body models –  26 x 7 1/2 x 9 1/2 inches – approximately 4 lbs

1. ‘Pinned‘ version using traditional autoharp tuning pins – 14 steel strings, 12 chord bars, string spacing 5/16 inch, one Key at a time (G/C mode).

2. ‘Tuners‘ versions using mandolin/guitar tuning machines –

(a) 14 nylon or steel strings, 12 chord bars, string spacing 5/16 inch, one Key at a time (G/C mode – add 5 inches to overall length of instrument for tuners headpiece add 1 lb to the weight).

(b) 16 steel strings, 15 chord bars, string spacing 9/32 inch, two (adjunct) Keys at a time, e.g., C and F, and when bridge moved, D and G, then E and A, etc. (add 5 1/2 inches to overall length of instrument for tuners headpiece add 1 lb to the weight).

3. ’Pinned‘ version using traditional autoharp tuning pins – 18 steel strings (2 octaves in ascending order – 3 Keys), 15 chord bars, string spacing 1/4 inch, three Keys at a time (e.g., C, F and G and when bridge moved, Db, F# and Ab, then D, G and A, etc.).

4. ‘Tuners‘ versions using guitar tuning machines (add 6 inches to overall length of instrument for tuners headpiece add 1  1/2 lb to the weight). By special order only.

(a) 18 steel strings arranged in doublets, 15 chord bars, string spacing 1/4 inch between doublets and 3/16 inch within doublets, one Key at a time (D/G mode). These one Key at a time versions have a fuller sound because there are more strings played with each chord.

(b) 18 steel strings (2 octaves in ascending order – 3 Keys), 15 chord bars, string spacing 1/4 inch, three Keys at a time (e.g., C, F and G and when bridge moved, Db, F# and Ab, then D, G and A, etc.).

Note – You will notice as you scroll through the pictures below that many of the chord bars on these instruments are colored coded in order to make it easy to differentiate between major, minor, suspended and 7th chords, so as to enhance improvisational play.

12 NYLON/STEEL STRING ‘PINNED’ NIGHTINGALE

(NOT CURRENTLY SHOWN)

Our smallest, simplest, least expensive Nightingale. A good starter instrument for children (age 10 and up) and traveling instrument for adults.

Overall dimensions 24 x 7 x 9 inches, traditional autoharp tuning pins, 12 nylon or steel strings, 10 chord bars, string spacing 3/8 inch.

Only the 12 string Nightingales come with the additional Single Chord Bar feature which facilitates easy lap held chording of all major, minor and 7th chords in one Key at a time (please see the photograph below).

Note – this version may be purchased without the 10 bar chord mechanism (a substantial savings) and then added at a later date if desired.

price – $300 (add $125 for the 10 bar chord mechanism)

12 NYLON/STEEL STRING ‘TUNERS’ NIGHTINGALE

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Overall size – 29 x 7 x 9 inches, weight 4 1/2 lbs

12 nylon/steel strings, 8 chord bars (future models 10)

With moveable bridge in the C/F position, note range is c to g’

Quick release chord mechanism and chord bars

Single Bar Chording

Chord/Tuning Guides – C/F, D/G, and E/A

Pick-up

price – $ 550

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                 PLAYED UPRIGHT WITH MULTI-BAR CHORD MECHANISM

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PLAYED ON LAP WITH SINGLE CHORD BAR

QUICK RELEASE CHORD MECHANISM REMOVED

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14 STEEL STRING ‘PINNED’ NIGHTINGALES

(All of the 14 and 16 string large body size Nightingales are recommended for ages 12 and older)

DSCI0061

Pictured above on the left is the last remaining original 14 string ‘pinned’ Nightingale embellished with iridized stained glass. Its dimensions are 27 x 6 1/2 x 10 1/2 inches and weighs almost 6 lbs because of the stained glass. It has 8 wide chord bars making this instrument quite suitable for a large person with big hands. The unique chord mechanism can be played either right or left handed. It has 4 Chord Guides for the Keys of  Bb/F, C/G, D/A and E/Ab.

price – $395 (reduced from $475)  –  SOLD

All 14 string models, with the bridge in the G/C position, have a diatonic (7 tone) 2 octave note range from g to f’. To clarify, most Nightingales are diatonic instruments playable in one Key at a time (the exceptions being the 16 string and one of the 18 string versions). The beauty of the one Key instruments is that by raising or lowering the doublet set of mid-strings on the instrument by a half-step, the instrument is instantly converted to play in the adjunct Key. For example, when in the Key of C, raising the two f tuned strings (a doublet in the middle of all the strings) to f#, instantly converts the instrument into the Key of G. The Chord Guides are organized so that the two Keys playable at the same bridge position are on each side of one of the Guides, e.g., for the two instruments pictured above, Bb/F, C/G, D/A and so on.

The newer instrument pictured above on the right has 12 chord bars with quick release chord mechanism and bars. It dimensions are 27 x  7 x 10 1/2 inches and weight 4 lbs. It has Tuning and Chord Guides for the following Keys – Bb/F, C/G, D/A, Eb/Bb and E/B.

price – $475

Note: there is a lot more descriptive information provided here than is really necessary, mostly because all of the instruments currently for sale herein were experimental models and were intentionally varied in order to try out different options. They all are beautiful in their own unique way.

14 and 16 STEEL STRING ‘TUNERS’ NIGHTINGALES

(Newer 14 string ‘tuners’ Nightingales to accommodate both nylon and steel strings)

SOLD

14 STEEL STRING TUNERS NIGHTINGALE

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The 14 string ‘tuners’ Nightingale pictured above is the original ‘tuners’ version and a little smaller than the rest, measuring 31 x 6 x 10 inches and weighs 5 lbs.

It has a quick release chord mechanism and chord bars (10) and is fitted with a pick-up.

It includes Chord Guides for the Keys of  F/C, G/D, Ab/Eb, A/E and Bb/F. Note that this gives different combinations of Keys playable at the same bridge position than other versions.

It has one very unique feature – an adjustable, retractable knee rest for positioning the height of the side of the instrument comfortably against one’s ear.

Note that this was the first Nightingale to use the sound hole at the bottom design, which seems to result in a louder more resonant sound, probably because the transference of sound waves through the soundboard is uninterrupted by the conventional sound hole in the middle of the instrument found on most instruments.

price – $525 (reduced from $650)

16 STEEL STRING TUNERS NIGHTINGALE

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Pictured above is the second 16 string ‘tuners’ Nightingale. Its overall size is 34 x 6 x 11 1/2 inches and it weighs 6 lbs.

It also comes with quick release chord mechanism and chord bars (10).

Depending on the bridge location, it plays in the following Keys at the same time – F/Bb, G/C, Ab/Db, A/D, Bb/Eb, and B/E and has Tuning and Chord Guides for all the above Keys.

This particular instrument includes a mute to dampen the out of Key notes if one is wanting to play in one Key with eyes closed and therefore not play the out of Key strings.

As with the 14 string models, the strings range in pitch, with the bridge in the G/C position, from g to f#’ (i.e., g  a  b  c  d  e  f’f  f#’f#   g  a  b  c  d  e).

price – $500 (reduced from $ 600)

16 STRING TUNERS BRASS SOUNDBOARD NIGHTINGALE

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This is another unique, one-of-a-kind Nightingale, fitted with a very thin brass soundboard with incredible sustain properties.

Its dimensions are 36 x 7 x 11 inches and its weight 7 lbs. It utilizes a re-conditioned 15 chord bar autoharp chord mechanism.

It comes with Chord Guides for playing in the following Keys, two at a time, depending on the position of the moveable bridge – F/C, F#/B, G/D, Ab/Eb, and A/E.

Additionally, it has two chord bars for muting the out of Key strings, facilitating random improvisational play.

This Nightingale is also fitted with a pick-up for amplification.

price – $550 (reduced from $700)

16 and 14 STRING TUNERS NIGHTINGALES

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The 16 and 14 string ‘tuners’ Nightingales pictured above are the latest versions available. Both come with re-conditioned autoharp chord mechanisms. Their dimensions and weights are as follows:

16 string – 33 x 7 x 10 1/2 inches,  5 lbs;  14 string – 31 x 7 x 10 1/2 inches,  5 lbs

The 16 string on the left has a 15 bar chord mechanism, with two of the bars designed to mute the out of Key notes. It has the following Chord and Tuning Guides and is playable simultaneously in the Keys of Bb/F, C/G, Db/Ab, D/A, Eb/Bb and E/B.

price – $650

The 14 string on the right has a 12 bar chord mechanism and Chord and Tuning Guides for the Keys of Bb/F, C/G, D/A, Eb/Bb and E/B, and simply requires either sharpening or flattening the two mid-strings to change from one Key to the other, e.g. from C to G.

price – $600

18 STEEL STRING ‘PINNED’ NIGHTINGALES

(Description and photo to be inserted soon)

price – $550

18 STEEL STRING ‘TUNERS’ NIGHTINGALES

(Both of the 18 string Nightingales are recommended for ages 16 and older.)

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The 18 string ‘tuners’ Nightingales pictured above are the only versions currently available. These one Key at a time versions have a fuller sound because there are more strings played with each chord. Both have re-conditioned 15 bar autoharp chord mechanisms. Their dimensions and weights are as follows:

18 string left – 35 x 7 x 11 inches,  6 lbs; 18 string right – 37 x 7 1/2 x 10 1/2 inches,  5 1/2 lbs

The latest instrument on the left has 9 sets of doublet strings tuned like this with the bridge in the D/G position – g’g  a’a  b’b  c’c  d’d  e’e  f#’f#  g’g”  a’a”. The Keys arrangement and Chord/Tuning Guides on this instrument (one Key at a time, changing Key by raising or lowering the two c strings) is as follows – F/C, G/D, Ab/Eb, A/E and Bb/F.

price – $700

The instrument on the right (the first 18 string) also has 9 sets of doublet strings tuned like this with the bridge in the C/G position –  f’ f  g’g  a’a  b’b  c’c  d’d  e’e  f#’f#  g’g”. The Keys arrangement and Chord Guides on this instrument (one Key at a time, changing Key by raising or lowering the four f strings) is as follows – Bb/F, C/G, D/A, Eb/Bb and E/B.

price – $500 (reduced from $700)

Note – there are no three Keys at a time ‘tuners’ Nightingales available at this time. Please request by special order. With the bridge in the C/F/G position, the string tuning progression would be as follows:

g   a   b  b   c   d   e   f   f#   g   a   b  b   c   d   e   f   f#

price – $725

Note: there are even more Nightingale photos on the Miscellaneous page.